Vitamin B3 (vitamin PP, nicotinic acid, niacin, nicotinamide)

Active effect of vitamin PP on metabolic processes due to its being a member of niacinamidadenindi nucleotide (NAD) and nucleotide niacinamidadenindi, is a cofactor of some enzymes. In particular, Niacinamide is a member of kodegidraz which transmit the hydrogen to flavoproteinovym enzymes, and thus regulates the redox processes in the body.

Nicotinic acid
Niacin - is the only vitamin that conventional medicine considers drug. It is possible that he is actually the most effective "medicine", normalizing blood cholesterol, of all.
vitamin b3 food sources

Vitamin PP - Part B-complex, which is crucial for energy production and maintaining well-being on many levels, especially for heart health and optimal circulation. He has been involved in more than half a hundred reactions, in which sugar and fat are converted into energy. It is also necessary for metabolism of amino acids and is involved in the conversion of fats into substances called eicosanoids - hormone-like agents who control the metabolic pathways of the body.

Niacin - vitamin, not knowingequal to controlcholesterol. People who have survived a myocardial infarction, niacin increases the chancesof stayingalive to a greaterextent than pharmaceuticals. That was theconclusion of the study, entitled "Coronary drug project" in which niacin was compared with two anti cholesterol drugs, to determine what isbestbest constrainsal heart attack and prolong life for a long time after myocardial infarction. Even severalyears after cessation of treatment the frequency of deaths was lower only among those who took niacin.

Niacin at the same time struggling with the four major risk factors for cardiovascular disease:

High LDL-cholesterol. This "bad" form of cholesterol accumulates on the inside walls of arteries, restricting blood flow and leading to harden of the arteries (atherosclerosis). Niacin supplements cause a reduction in LDL-cholesterol.
Low HDL-cholesterol. Low concentrations of "good" cholesterol - one of the surest harbingers of cardiovascular disease because HDL helpscleanthe circulatory system of LDL.

Elevated levels of lipoprotein (a). Gummy byproduct of LDL - lipoprotein (a) - in the past few years has been considered an independent risk factor for heart disease - as dangerous as high blood pressure, smoking, obesity and total cholesterol levels. It contributes to clogged arteries and increases the likelihood of blood clots. The higher the level, the greater the risk. None of the known drugs do not have any impact on the high number of lipoprotein (a). However, niacin, together with vitamin C reduces the associated risk.

High triglycerides. As a recently recognized as an independent risk factor that has critical importance, these blood fats signal the presence of insulin disorders - diabetes type II - and hypertension. The best way to deal with high triglyceride levels - to dramatically reduce intake of sugar and other carbohydrates, but the addition of niacin may thus provide strong support, reducing triglyceride levels.

Application nikotinomida recommended for treatment of pathological conditions:

Diabetes. Since 1940, science is well known that patients with type, I diabetes required insulin injections less if they regularly take nicotinamide. This substance is also capable, to a certain extent, to prevent damage to the pancreas, leading to loss of body ability to produce its own insulin.

It is from these considerations; researchers have assumed, when given prophylactically nicotinamide of about eighty thousand children (5 to seven years) in New Zealand. Nicotinamide reduced the incidence of type, I diabetes more than 50%.

Osteoarthritis. Nicotinamide also reduces pain and improves mobility of joints in osteoarthritis.

Other states. Like niacin, nicotinamide has a mild sedative and is useful in treating a variety of emotional and neuropsychiatric disorders, including anxiety, depression, decreased attention, alcoholism and schizophrenia. In large doses, it acts as an antioxidant and laboratory studies in cell cultures was active in the virus HIV16.

Daily maintenance
Daily requirement for nicotinic acid (and nicotinamide) is the adult of about 20 mg, with heavy physical labor - about 25 mg, for children from six months to one year - 6 mg, from 1 to 1.5 years - 9 mg; from 1,5 to two years - 10 mg, 3 to four years - 12 mg, 5 to six years - 13 mg, from 7 to 10 years - 15 mg, 11 to 13 years - 19 mg for boys 14-17 years - 21 mg for girls aged 14-17 - 18 mg.

Symptoms of hypovitaminosis
Pellagra, corroding ulcers, dementia, depression, diarrhea, dizziness, fatigue, headaches, indigestion, insomnia, pain in extremities, loss of appetite, low blood sugar, muscle weakness, cracking and inflammation.

Nicotinic acid
Prescribe nicotinic acid as a specific means for the prevention and treatment of pellagra. In addition, it is used for the treatment of gastrointestinal diseases (especially in patients with gastritis with low acidity), liver diseases (acute and chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis), vascular spasms in the limbs, kidneys and brain (see Nigeksin, Nikoverin, Nikoshpan, Ksantinola nicotinate), and neuritis of the facial nerve in atherosclerosis, long-term healing wounds and ulcers, infections and other diseases.

Indications and dose are basically the same as for nicotinic acid (pellagra, gastritis with low acidity, chronic colitis, hepatitis, liver cirrhosis, etc.) How vasodilator nicotinamide, however, does not apply.

Assign nicotinamide orally or parenterally.

Oseltamivir designate an adult to 0,015-0,025 g, children - 0,005-0,01 g 1-2 times a day.

In pellagra appoint an adult inside of 0,05-0,1 g 3-4 times a day for children - 0.01 -0.05 g 2-3 times a day for 15-20 days, with other diseases - by 0,02-0,05 g for adults and children 0,005-0,01 g 2-3 times a day.

Intravenously, intramuscularly or subcutaneously injected with 1-2 ml of 1%, 2.5% or 5% solution 1-2 times a day.

Method of issuance: powder; pills to 0,015 g (for preventive purposes), and 0,005 and 0,025 g (for medical purposes), ampoule 1 ml of 1% solution of 1 and 2 ml 2,5% solution. Storage: List B. In a tightly closed container, protected from light; capsule - a dark place.

Nicotinic acid
Individuals with increased sensitivity to nicotinic acid should be administered nicotinamide, except when nicotinic acid is used as a vasodilator.

Keep in mind that prolonged use of large doses of niacin can lead to the development of fatty liver. To prevent this complication are encouraged to include in your diet foods rich in methionine, or designate, methionine and other lipotrophic funds.

Daily doses of nicotinamide hardly cause vasomotor reactions. Allergic reactions due to the lack of influence on the MB mast cells are excluded. Therefore, a more preferred in the complexes, and an hypersensitive reaction to complexes with nicotinamide did not occur, and if there is, due to other components (e.g. vitamin B).

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