Healthy Food


Where are the diseases?
If you go to a store or restaurant is hard to find a dish truly relevant to healthy nutrition. Unfortunately, advertising, popular radio programs, television, newspapers do not focus on the correct choice and combination of foods to ensure in condition eating. The packaging of the fast-food manufacturers informs about the amount of calories and composition of the proposed product, but few people are interested in this information, calorie counts and the amount of food eaten.

In cafes and restaurants are no clues about the most useful combination of food and calorie content of dish's truth. The human body feels the need for a certain amount of nutrients needed for the transformation of matter (food) into heat energy. Therefore, the daily compassionate diet should include proteins, fats, carbohydrates, vitamins, and minerals. Unfortunately, most people are eager eat what they like, i.e. different delicacies, sweets, and not. What is actually necessary to the body? Very few people think about proper nutrition and caloric intake.

Calories - is the amount of heat energy, which is allocated a person as a result of absorption of a particular product norma daily calorie diet 2500-5000 kcal. The amount of calories depends on the work performed, the physical activity of sex, age and climate (cold or hot climates). It is estimated that consumption female weighing 55 kgs, living in a temperate climate, is 2300 kcal. Baselines: 8:00 - her working a day, standing eight hours of domestic work and eight hours of sleep. There is a pattern, if the power is more calories than the body requires, then the balance is disturbed. As a result of overeating and lack of physical activity is delayed fat layer.
healthy foods to eat
The average working woman consumes 2000 kcal per day. If you need a little weight loss can reduce the number of calories. Reducing the number of calories is important to remember that the lower bound - 1200 kcal. On a reduced diet cannot be more than two weeks. In order to maintain a certain weight after reducing caloric diet, we had a lot of effort. Usually, clicking on the habitual diet, manages to keep the reduced weight of only 4-6 weeks. Monitor the amount and composition of food intake need to be constantly. Reasonable People, if he wants to get rid of a few kilograms forever, moderately reduce calories to your daily menu.

Appetite and hunger

Man begins to eat, for two reasons: a feeling of hunger or appetite appears. The feeling of hunger - it's an instinctive defense mechanism, causing the person to seek replenishment of energy consumption by taking any food having a caloric value to maintain vitality. Appetite is the desire to eat anything edible specific, desired at the moment. They say: "Eyes can eat more than the stomach" and it is difficult for anyone to deny the desire to get pleasure from eating good food, about health in such moments, usually no one thinks. On a sense of appetite advertising, excites interest (appetite) to the advertised product and increase's sales.

Theory of hunger
There are several theories to explain the occurrence of hunger and satiety. According to the theory, meal accompanied by an increased concentration of glucose in the blood, which react to changes in the receptors located in the hypothalamus (the region of the brain) sends signals to the cerebral cortex of saturation and the need to stop eating. When there is hunger, the concentration of glucose in the blood decreases, the receptors respond to this by sending pulses of the necessity of finding and eating food. Reduction of blood-glucose concentration and lack of food in the stomach begins to be felt after about four hours after last meals. This 4-hour cycle for signs of hunger has led to the standard diet: breakfast, lunch, afternoon snack and dinner.

The mucous membrane of tongue, stomach, intestine, liver cells also contain receptors that respond to the level of glucose in the blood. Lack of food in the stomach leads to increased reduction of the stomach wall, this explains the possible emergence of hunger pains in the stomach. Theory explains the cause of hunger and satiety by changing the concentration of fatty acids in the blood. On hunger and appetite, and affects the environment. Hunger occurs faster in cold weather than in warm weather. In the cold season, there is a desire, there are more calories and hot dishes, meat dishes and broths, in the warm-season people are more attracted salads, fruits and dairy products. This is because at low temperatures requires a bit more calories to warm the body. Physical work causes a more rapid emergence of hunger. Hunger, appearing immediately after the physical work, and feedings after exercise restore the number of consumed energy to work.

Need for nutrients
To ensure human health and the prevention of diseases, it is necessary to comply with healthy eating it's natural food products, diverse and balanced consumption of any nutrient in excess of no use, but rather harmful, as well as inadequate intake of nutrients and energy food. Excess necessarily stand out from the body, loaded with the kidneys and liver. Excess of one nutrient may impair the exchange of another substance.

Physiologic need - is the rate of daily consumption of food substances (proteins, fats, carbohydrates). Individual physiological need for nutrients is distinctive for people depending on the hereditary characteristics, gender, age. Recommended intakes of nutrients - a value that must fill the need for representatives of different groups of people. In our country, the recommended consumption rate is the "Standards of physiological needs for nutrients and energy to various groups of the USSR, which have been approved by Ministry of Health of the USSR in 1991 and operate in Russia.

Energy or life energy supply of the human body gives three classes of basic nutrients - proteins, fats, carbohydrate's food. It is important that the three classes of fundamental food substances constitute a large portion of any food by weight in any food about 11-14% of the energy yield proteins, 35-40% fats, 55% carbohydrates. It established that the physiological value of proteins in providing energy-4 kcal / g fat, nine kcal / g carbohydrates, four kcal / g. Energy value of food ration is provided mainly at the expense of carbohydrates before (40%) and includes a variety of cereals, rice, potatoes, bread and pasta. By weight, it is about 1,3-1,5 kg, but it is important choices about the food: preferably, for example, unpolished grain with a high content of dietary fiber or whole meal bread 35% of the diet given to vegetables and fruits, the volume of about 400 grams per day. Canned fruits and vegetables are not included. 20% of the daily volume of diet are proteins, about 150-200 g of all products: fish, chicken, meat, eggs or legumes, nuts. It is recommended to choose foods with low fat content. Fats and sweets are about 5% of the diet, and include fats, oils, foods high in fat (sausages, fatty meats, various pastries, etc.), as well as sugar and foods with high-sugar content (sweet, sweet drinks, syrups, jams, honey).

The calculation of caloric intake
Caloric content of food is expressed in calories (kcal) or kilo joules (kJ) from the school physics course: one kcal provides a quantity of heat required to heat 1 liter of water one degree Celsius. Using data on the content of major nutrients of carbohydrates, proteins, fats, we can calculate the total caloric content of food. Contents of the main nutrients and caloric content of staple foods are presented in reference tables: "The chemical composition of food." Assume that the caloric intake 2000 kcal and contain 200 grams of carbohydrates. Which is 800 kcal (200 g x 4 kcal / g number of physiological values of carbohydrates), 100 g fat, which is approximately 900 kcal (100 g x nine kcal / g of physiological value of fats), and 75 g protein, which is 300 calories (75 x 4 kcal / g protein physiological value)? So you can calculate your daily food intake.

The rules of healthy eating

General rules of healthy eating apply to all categories of people.

1. Eat a variety of foods every day. Each food group has its own unique set of nutrients. Modern science known 45 essential nutrients that are found in various foods. This means that every day should be included in the diet of foods from different groups (dairy products, meat, fish, poultry, fruits, berries, vegetables, bread, cereals, fats, sweets and sugar).

2. Moderation and balance of power this means that different types of products are best consumed in moderation. Eating a portion of one type of product, be sure to "leave room" for portions of other foods. The number and composition portions may change - increase or decrease - depending on physical activity (energy expenditure). Physical work increases the energy requirement for nutrients, i.e. require more food. If a teenager seen very rapid growth and weight gain, the amount of food should be increased. Sports or physical activity will require or increase the size of portions, or more frequent use of the same portions of food. If the demand for energy, for some reason, reduced, the portion sizes of food should be reduced.

The principle of diversity of food should be respected otherwise the body cannot get enough protein, fat, carbohydrates, minerals and vitamins. Moderation and balance of power are impossible without adherence to diet. The most physiologically sound should be considered as a minimum four-time meal for the day. Breakfast - 25% of the daily diet, dinner - 35%, mid-morning snack - 15% dinner - 25%. Dine is recommended no later than two hours before bedtime. For seniors, complete, weakened people, as well as the preschool-age child is recommended, more frequent meals 5-6 times a day in small portions.

3. Eat foods that contain fiber (fruits, vegetables, bread, grains, cereals). The consumption of plant foods provides the body with fiber, complex carbohydrates, vitamins, and minerals. Nutrient content per unit calorific highest among all food groups. The consumption of foods from plant foods (salads, cereals, sandwiches) should be limited to adding butter, pure sugar and salt vegetables, fruits, grains, beans - the only source of dietary fiber in human nutrition. Dietary fiber helps to prevent major chronic diseases in humans - cardiovascular disease and cancer.

4. Limit fat intake. Choose foods low in fat. Try to prepare foods without adding fat or with the least possible amount of added fat, both animal and vegetable. Eat lean meats, fish, chicken without skin, milk and dairy products with reduced fat. Reducing consumption of animal saturated fats and cholesterol contribute to atherosclerosis of vessels of the heart and brain, hypertension, cancer, gallstones and obesity.

5.Ogranichivayte consumption of salt. Increased salt intake causes high blood pressure. Therefore, the reduction in salt intake may be one of the ways to prevent and treat hypertension. Teach yourself moderately salt foods when cooking, limit your intake of salty vegetable, meat and fish products when selecting salt favor of iodized salt, which prevents iodine deficiency in human nutrition.

6.Oranichivayte consumption of aseptic sugar. Excessive consumption of pure sugar, sweets promote immoderate energy consumption and obesity, the development of dental caries the main source of sugar in the diet - regular white sugar, drinks, sweets and confectionery moderate intake of pure sugar to 5-6 teaspoons per day or 3 or five chocolates caramels or five teaspoons of jam (honey), or 2-3 waffles or 50 g of cake.

The word "diet" is currently a very fashionable and is more commonly used than the word "diet," many constantly "dieting"; For the recovery of used about nutrition people away from medicine, which can be read in newspapers and magazines. People who read such recommendations are often satisfied with the experiments on themselves, because they want to be healthy, but actually expose their health to the test. What is the diet? Under the diet to understand the collection of food and diet a wide array of diets for the treatment of various diseases the purpose of the appointment of such diets - complete simulated organs and systems that facilitate and improve the functions of the affected organ or system, the normalization of metabolism and excretion from the body of accumulated toxins, fluids, decrease body fat.

The predominance of basic nutrients (proteins, fats, carbohydrates) diets are divided into:
protein (cheese, fish, meat), carbohydrate (sugar, fruit, rice - fruit);
fat (sour cream); magnesium, potassium (with an increase in magnesium or potassium);
with a predominance of liquid (juice, tea); The predominance of food diets is distinguished:
vegetarian (only plant foods); dairy (milk, yogurt, cottage cheese); sugar; meat; fish;
liquid (fruit and vegetable juices, broth hips, mineral water).

Fasting diet and diets special diets are defective for the body with energy and nutrients, so they prescribed for 1-2 days at most 1-3 times a week, taking into account the health and diet. Man is omnivorous and should feed varied diet. The body constantly needed all the essential nutrient's protein, fat, carbohydrates, minerals and vitamins that can only come from food. So, before you exclude from their diet, some, such as meat and other products, or just give up food for the sake of "health" even for 1-2 days, be careful, check with your doctor, dietitian or a family - a doctor, a specialist in the field supply.

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