Vitamin B1 (thiamine)

Vitamin B1 is required for oxidative decarboxylation of keto acids (pyruvic and lactic), the synthesis of acetylcholine; it is involved in carbohydrate metabolism and associated energy, fat, protein, water-salt metabolism, has a regulating effect on the trophic and the nervous system.

With insufficient intake of thiamine pyruvic and lactic acid accumulates in the tissues, disrupted the synthesis of acetylcholine, resulting in deteriorating since the functions of several systems, primarily, the nervous, cardiovascular and digestive.

Thiamine enhances circulation and is involved in hemopoiesis.

Thiamine optimizes cognitive activity and brain function. He has a positive effect of the level of energy, growth, normal appetite, ability to learn and is necessary for muscle tone of the digestive tract, stomach and heart. Thiamine acts as an antioxidant, protecting the body from the damaging effects of aging, alcohol and tobacco.

Like all vitamin's B, thiamine has chelating properties.
vitamin b1 thiamine sources

Symptoms of hypovitaminosis
At full avitaminosis, B1 develops the disease of beri-beri: the body is disturbed carbohydrate metabolism, and accumulate lactic and pyruvic acid. In this case, observed damage to the nervous system (polyneuritis, which may end in paralysis), the heart muscle (it lost the ability to effectively shrink the heart of the patient increases, quickens the pulse), gastrointestinal tract (decreased appetite; constipation appeared). Patients with a sharp depletion of the total, partial or widespread swelling.

The primary symptoms develop hypovitaminosis B1 are:

The nervous system:

increased irritability, a feeling of inner restlessness, tearfulness,
insomnia (occasionally resistant) memory loss,
numbness in hands and feet, pain itch
impairment of coordination,
chill at room temperature,
disruption of the brain increased mental and physical fatigue;
Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome (peculiar to patients suffering from alcoholism).

From the digestive system:

loss of appetite,
feeling of heaviness or burning in the epigastric region,
weight loss
enlargement of the liver.

Cardio-vascular system:

shortness of breath, even at low physical activity,
acute cardiovascular failure (may develop in some cases, the absence of timely diagnosis and treatment purposes).

Deficiency of vitamin B1 in the blood serum occurs in 25% of AIDS patients. Chronic thiamine deficiency in AIDS patients leads to a variety of neurological symptoms, leading to anorexia and weight loss.

Hypo-and avitaminosis B1 (beriberi).

Thiamine is used in diseases of the cardiovascular system, such as:

circulatory failure,

Thiamine supplementation is also required when applying diuretic drugs in hypertension, congestive heart failure, because they accelerate its excretion.

Vitamin B1 improves the functioning of the nervous system and reduces pain in various neurological diseases. Shown at:

flaccid paralysis
astenovegetative syndrome, etc.

In dermatological practice, thiamine is used in dermatoses of neurogenic origin, skin ulcers of different etiology, pyoderma, eczema, psoriasis.

Thiamine is used in the treatment of organic brain dysfunction, such as "organic brain syndrome, contributes to a better brain functioning in healthy people, increasing learning ability and conceptual capacity in general. In addition, supplementation of vitamin B1 helps the treatment of depression, a number of other mental illnesses. There are data on the preventive effect of thiamine on Alzheimer's disease.

The use of vitamin B1 is indicated for treatment of digestive diseases:

gastric ulcer and duodenal ulcer,
chronic gastritis accompanied by disorders of motor and secretory functions of the stomach,
chronic enteritis with malabsorption syndrome (gluten enteropathy, Whipple's disease, Crohn's disease, radiation enteritis)
chronic pancreatitis with secretory insufficiency
operated stomach disease,

Metabolic and endocrine system diseases (hyperthyroidism, diabetes, obesity), is also an indication to receive thiamine.

Vitamin B1 acts as an antioxidant, protecting the body from the damaging effects of aging, alcohol and tobacco.

It is advisable to use for the production of thiamine in contact with carbon disulfide, tetraethyl lead, while working in hot shops.

In therapeutic use for thiamine and thiamine chloride, bromide. Both drugs have a weak characteristic odor of yeast.

Drugs administered orally (after eating) and parenteral.

Dose of thiamine bromide is usually used at higher doses than thiamine chloride: 1 mg of thiamine chloride corresponds to the activity of 1.29 mg of thiamine bromide.

Doses by ingestion of thiamine chloride for adults 0,01 g (10 mg) 1-3 times a day. Children under three years - 0,005 grams (5 mg) a day, 3-8 years - 3 times a day, a day older than eight years - to 0.01 g 1-3 times a day. Course of treatment - 30 days.

Malabsorption in the intestine and the need for rapid creation of high concentrations of vitamin B1 in the blood it is administered intramuscularly: adults 0,025-0,05 g thiamine chloride or 0,03-0,06 g thiamine bromide 1 per day for children - 0, 0125 g of thiamine chloride, or 0,015 grams of thiamine bromide. Treatment course - 10-30 injections.

Thiamin is generally well tolerated. Subcutaneous injections are painful because of the low pH solutions.

In rare cases (usually with parenteral administration) may be an allergic reaction (itching, urticaria, angioedema). The most severe reactions can occur with intravenous thiamine.

Allergic reactions usually occur in women in menopause and those suffering from alcoholism.

Vitamin B1 is contraindicated in individuals with drug intolerance in history.

Signs of hypervitaminosis
An overdose of vitamin B1 increases the activity of acetylcholine, which plays an important role in the pathogenesis of allergy.

Long-term introduction of excessive doses of vitamin B1 can lead to discoordination enzyme systems of liver and fatty degeneration, impaired renal function.

Not recommended simultaneous parenteral administration of vitamin B1 with pyridoxine (vitamin B6) and cyanocobalamin (vitamin B12), as well as with penicillin, streptomycin and nicotinic acid.

Sulfonamides, as well as alcohol-based products infringe the normal absorption of vitamin B1. An antagonist of thiamine is choline.

Antibiotics, drugs containing sulfur, oral contraceptives, antacids may reduce the level of thiamine in the body.

For transfer of thiamine to its active form requires magnesium.

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