Ab-(Ab-) Ab-(Ab-) - a prefix indicating a location outside of something. For example: ABC embryonic - is outside or opposite the embryo.

Abasia - inability to walk, not associated with any human disease. See also astasia.

Abarticulation - 1. Dislocated joint. 2. Synovial joint

Abdomin-, Abdomino - the phrase indicates a link to the

abdominal cavity. For example: abdominalgia - abdominal pain; Abdominothoracic - pertaining to the abdominal and chest cavity.

Abductor - any muscle that attaches one part of the body of another, or from the midline of the body.

Abduction - allocating a limb or any other body part of the midline trunk.

Aberrant - deviating from the norm: this term is usually used to refer to blood vessels or nerves that are not at the point where they should be.

Abiotrophy - hidden anomaly organ or body systems. Degeneration or loss of function of an organ or organ system, without some apparent reason, for example, abiotrophy retina (retinal abiotrophy, retinal abiotrophy) - progressive retinal degeneration leading to vision loss that occurs due to various genetic disorders, for example, because retinitis pigmentosa (inflammation of the retina)

Ablepsia - obsolete term for blindness.

Ablepharia - congenital absence or significant reduction in the size of age.

Abortion, Miscarriage (Abortion) - expulsion (removal) of an embryo or fetus from the uterus at this stage of pregnancy when it is not yet capable of independent survival (ie, in the first 24 weeks of gestation). Symptoms of threatened abortion are usually complaints of abdominal pain and bleeding from the uterus, but the fruit in this case remains alive, as soon as the fetus is killed, it is inevitable expulsion from the uterus. Of incomplete abortion in the womb are part of the fetus or placenta. Abortion may be spontaneous or artificial, arising as a result of receiving a number of drugs or by exposure to the female organism a variety of factors (abortion). Habit (or recurrent) abortion is characterized by three or more consecutive spontaneous abortion during the period of 20 weeks, when fetal weight is 500 grams. In 10-15% of cases of habitual abortion is a consequence of a pathology of the uterus (especially if a woman has a uterus or bicornuate istmikotservikalnoy failure). Termination of pregnancy, or even attempts to interrupt pregnancy are considered a crime if carried out in terms that go beyond permitted in the Regulation of abortion from the 1967 and subsequent amendments thereto of 1991. Two doctors must confirm that the abortion is necessary because one of the reasons specified in this provision, and the procedure of abortion should be performed in a specialized hospital or clinic. Medical termination of pregnancy, involves the use of such drugs, such as mifepristone with or without the addition of prostaglandins (eg, gemeprost). By surgical methods of abortion include vacuum extraction of the embryo or fetus via intrauterine cannula, dilation and curettage, as well as cleansing of the uterus from the remains of the fetus inside her. In the early stages of abortion risk of complications after an abortion is low, but after the 13th week of pregnancy is significantly increased. People who are not related to medicine, distinguish itself from the abortion spontaneous abortion (miscarriage), which occurs in the later stages of pregnancy because abortion is a woman deliberately to interrupt pregnancy, miscarriage, occurring in late pregnancy, they are rather to a random phenomenon. Doctors also recognize the validity of this approach.

Abortus - the product of abortion, the fetus weighing less than 500 grams, which at the time of abortion was removed from the uterus of dead or incapable of self-survival.

Abrasion - 1. Little damage, at which the surface of the skin or mucous membrane is removed by abrasion or scraping. 2. Erasing the teeth, especially at their base due to too vigorous brushing them. Often exacerbated by erosion. 3. Any washed or scraped the actions leading to the removal of a portion of the surface.

Absence - (neurology), see Epilepsiya.ABSORBTsIYa (absorption) - (in Physiology), absorption, absorption of liquids or other substances tissues of the human body. Digested food absorbed by the digestive tract and is then fed into the blood and lymph systems. Most nutrients absorbed in the small intestine - a constituent jejunum and ileum, but alcohol can be easily absorbed from the stomach. The small intestine is lined with tiny finger-shaped protrusion from the inside (see Vorsinka), which greatly increases its surface area, resulting in the absorption of products of digestion is considerably accelerated. See also assimilation and digestion.

Abscess - a limited accumulation of pus, occurs when acute or chronic focal infection and leading to tissue destruction in the outbreak. An example of an abscess may be pustular skin lesions - the boil. The most common cause of an abscess is a local bacterial infection, particularly staphylococcal, which reduces the body's defenses. In cold abscess, caused by mostly TB bacteria, there is swelling of the affected area, but painful manifestations, as well as other signs of inflammation (typical for an acute abscess), are virtually absent. Conventional treatments abscess is the use of antibiotics and, if necessary, surgical dissection and removal of the abscess he accumulation of pus. The brain and its membranes have low resistance to such infections, so as a result of it any microorganisms that contribute to the development of an abscess, a person may develop a brain abscess. Prognosis of this disease is very bad, if time does not produce aspiration or surgical drainage of the affected area

Abscess (lung) (Vomisa) - abnormal cavity in any organ (usually in the lung), containing pus.

Apical Abscess - an abscess around the apex of the tooth. Acute abscess occurs extremely painful, causing swelling of the jaw, and sometimes the face. Usually its development is associated with the withering away and the infected tooth pulp. For the treatment carried out drainage, root canal treatment of dental pulp or tooth extraction is performed.

Brodie'S Abscess - abscess of bone: a kind of chronic bacterial osteomyelitis, the cause of which is neither TB or syphilis. Spent treatment requires surgical drainage of the affected area and use of antibiotics.

Ischiorectal Abscess - an abscess that develops in the ischiorectal fossa - the space between the muscles of the pelvic floor and pelvic bones. May develop spontaneously, but often a secondary disease resulting from the available anal fissures, thrombosed hemorrhoids, or any other diseases associated with the anus. Symptoms include: severe throbbing pain around the anus, accompanied by fever and painful swelling in this place and the result may form Anal fistula. Pus from the abscess is usually removed by surgical incision performed.

Perinephric Abscess - accumulation of pus around the kidneys, which is usually secondary to pionefrozu.

Periodontal Abscess - an abscess that develops in the periodontal and indicating the presence of a human acute inflammation.

Quinsy, Peritonsillar Abscess - the appearance of pus in the peritonsillar space between the tonsils and pharynx. Person concerned a lot of pain, it can be difficult to open your mouth (lockjaw), and swallow. In the treatment of antibiotics. In some cases, there is a need for surgical dissection to remove an abscess from his accumulated pus. Medical name: peritonsillar abscess (peritonsillar abscess).

Subphrenic Abscess - accumulation of pus in the space below the diaphragm, most often on the right side - between the liver and diaphragm. The cause of subdiaphragmatic abscess may be a postoperative infection (especially after operations on the stomach or intestine) or perforation of an organ (eg, perforation of peptic ulcer). In some cases, fixed-term appointment is effective antibiotics to the patient, but often this situation arises the need for surgical drainage of abscess.

Abulia - apathy, loss of or impaired ability to carry out independent actions or decisions. Man wants but can not begin to act independently; had significantly reduced initiative and energy. This symptom is common in schizophrenia.

Avascular - without blood vessels or having a poor blood supply. This term is usually used to refer to the cartilage.

Avitaminosis - lack of vitamins in the human body.

Autoclave (Autoclave) - apparatus for the sterilization of surgical instruments, clothing, etc. Consists of a chamber napominayushey home steam boiler for cooking, which are loaded sterilized materials and made their treatment with steam at high pressure.

Automatism (Automatism) - human behavior, which may occur in epilepsy, when the patient unconsciously performs various movements or tasks. Movements may be simple or repetitive, such, for example, clapping hands, or, conversely, very complex, such as imitation of the usual conscious action.

Autotrophic (Autotrophic), lithotrophic (Lithotrophic) - used to describe organisms (called autotrophs (autotrophs)), which synthesize organic compounds from carbon dioxide and nitrate (or ammonium compounds), using an external energy source. Photoautotrophic (photoautotrophic) organisms, including green plants and some bacteria get this energy from the sun; hemoavtotrofnye (chemoautotrophic) or chemosynthetic (chemosynthctic) organisms derive energy from inorganic chemicals. All autotrophic bacteria are not parasitic. For comparison: Heterotrophic.

Autochthonous (Autochthonous) Autochthonous (Autochthonous) - 1. Local, stay in place education. For example, the clot that is not transferred to the bloodstream, but remains at the site of its formation, called autochthonous. 2. Arising in any organ of the human body without external stimulation (eg, palpitations).

Avulsion (avulsion) - 1. Also evulsion - separation or forcible secession of a part of the structure. For example, the tendon can tear himself away from the bone to which it is normally attached, or scalp can break away from lying underneath tissue and bone. 2. In dentistry - knocking out a tooth due to injury. Knocked-out tooth can be reimplantirovan (see reimplantation).

Agammaglobulinemia (Agammaglobulinaemia) - the absence or drastic reduction of gamma globulin in the serum. For comparison: hypogammaglobulinemia.

Agar (Agar) - extract from red seaweeds; after melting and cooling, they form a solid gel that is used in the process of solidification of liquid bacterial cultures. Blood agar (blood agar) - nourishing extract, which includes 5-10% horse blood used for the cultivation of certain bacteria or for the determination of hemolytic activity (destruction of blood cells).

Agglutination (Agglutination), fusion (Clumping) - the process of agglomeration of the microparticles, as red blood cells or bacteria suspended under the influence of serum antibodies called agglutinins (agglutinins), with the formation of visible clusters. Any substance that induces the formation of agglutinin, called agglutinogens (agglutinogen). Agglutination is a specific reaction, serum containing various agglutinins, helps in the laboratory to identify a large number of unknown bacteria. When mixing different groups of blood agglutination occurring due to the fact that the serum contains natural antibodies (idioagglutinin (isoagglutinins)), which attack red blood cells contained in a group of alien blood, while it does not matter whether they had encountered with them or not. This process is markedly different from those that occur during coagulation krovi.

Agglutinin - an antibody that causes agglutination of bacteria, blood cells, as well as some other antigenic particles.

Agglutinogen (Agglutinogen) - Any antigen causes the formation of agglutinin in the serum and thus participates in the process of agglutination.

Agenesis (Agenesis) - congenital absence of an organ, usually associated with a defect or immaturity of the embryo.

Alkylating agents (Alkylating Agents) - a class of drugs used in chemotherapy (eg, cyclophosphamide and melphalan). These drugs bind to DNA molecules and prevent the complete separation of the two chains of DNA molecules from each other in the process of cell division.

Aglossia (Aglossia) - congenital absence of the language.

Agnathy (Agnathid) - congenital complete or partial absence of lower chelyusti.

(Agnosia) - brain disease in which the patient can not properly interpret his feelings, despite the fact that the sensory organs and nerves, which of them to the brain receives signals are functioning normally. This disorder is caused by violations that occur in associative areas of the parietal lobe of the brain. In the case of auditory agnosia (auditory agnosia) in a patient maintained normal hearing, but he can not correctly interpret the audible sounds (including human speech). When tactile agnosia (astereognosis) (tactile agnosia, astereognosis) hands the ability to maintain normal sensitivity, but the patient can not determine the shape of an object by touch. When mind blindness (visual agnosia) in a patient maintained normal vision, but he can not understand the meaning of written or printed text

Agonal - the term used to describe the place at the time of death events, namely: the cessation of breathing or the relevant changes of ECG and EEG, allowing state the fact of death.

Agony (Moribund) - dying.

Agonist (Agonist) - 1. Prime mover - muscle, at the expense of which is a definite movement of a body part. Contraction of the muscle-agonist is accompanied by relaxation of opposing muscles of her antagonist. 2. Drug or any other substance, which acts as a receptor, initiates a chain of intracellular biochemical processes in the human body. These include, for example, cholinergic drugs (see Tools parasimpatomimeticheskie).

Agoraphobia (Agoraphobia) - abnormal fear of public places and open spaces. See also Fobiya. Agranulocytosis - a condition in which there is a significant decrease in the content of neutrophils in the blood as a result of bone marrow chemicals or due to side effects of some medicines. The main symptoms are fever, agranulocytosis, as well as ulceration of the mouth and throat, the patient can quickly develop a strong weakness, and in death. Treatment is carried out with antibiotics. In case of necessity to save the life of the patient shows a blood transfusion of leukocytes.

Agraphia (Agraphid), dysgraphia (Dysgraphia) - acquired loss of the ability to write, despite the fact that the strength and coordination of movements of the hand are stored in the norm. Refers to language disorders, usually associated with disease of the parietal lobe of the brain.

Agromania (Agromania) - pathologically strong desire to live in solitude in the bosom of nature.

Hell-(Ad-) - prefix points to the location is near in the direction of something. For example, the adaxial (adaxial) - directed to the main axis; adoralny (adoral) - located near or around the mouth.

Adaptation (Adaptation) - a phenomenon in which gradually decreases sensory response to prolonged or repeated stimulation. For example, the human sense of smell can adapt (adapt) to the stimulating effect of a smell, so that prolonged his presence on the olfactory organ (nose) cease to do with communication, the existence of such a smell. Similarly, the adaptation of organs of touch (skin receptors) leads to the fact that a person may at any time to forget about the recently worn clothing on the body, so as not to feel her touch.

Adaptation of Light (Light Adaptation) - reflex, through which the eye can either adapt to the normal light after prolonged human stay in the dark or in very dim light after his stay in a room with normal lighting. Because of this reflection is the narrowing or widening the pupil (see pupillary reflex), as contained in the rods and cones visual pigment under the influence of light changes its configuration, which leads to the emergence of a nerve impulse. For comparison: Adaptation of tempo.

The dark adaptation (Dark Adaptation) - changes in the retina and pupil, which allow a person to adapt to changing light conditions and see the twilight light (in darkness). Dark adaptation is associated with increased activity of sticks - the peripheral processes of photoreceptors in the retina, which are better operated in the dark - and with dilated pupils (see the pupillary reflex). For comparison: Adaptation of light.

Adventive (Adventitious) - referring to the adventitia.

Adhesion, Adhesion (Adhesion) - 1. Connecting two different surfaces, such as moving surfaces of joints, with fibrous connective tissue that forms in the inflamed or injured area. After abdominal surgery patients often have adhesions between intestinal loops, but only in rare cases when this occurs a complete bowel obstruction. If a spike occurred in the pericardium, it can lead to restriction of cardiac muscle contractions. 2. The process of wound healing, where its edges are in contact with each other. In primary adhesion (primary adhesion) found very little granulation (granular) tissue in the secondary adhesion (secondary adhesion) the wound edges are connected to each other by means of granulation tissue.

Addiction (Addiction) - state of dependence that develops as a result of habituation to a particular drug. More precisely, the term encompasses the state of physical dependence caused by the intake of substances such as morphine, heroin or alcohol, but it is also used in the case of the state of psychological dependence, caused by taking such drugs as barbiturates. Treatment is aimed at gradually reducing the reception of the substance and eventually out to achieve total abstinence sick of it. See also Alcohol, Tolerance.

Adductor (Adductor) - any muscle that causes a body part toward the other part or toward the median line of the body.

Adduction (Adduction) - the movement of a limb or part of the median line of the body.

Aden-(Aden-), adeno-(Adeno-) - a prefix indicating relationship to the gland or glands. For example, adenalgiya (adenalgia) - pain in the gland; adenogenezis (adcnogencsis) - the development of cancer, adenopathy (adenopathy) - disease of cancer.

Adenine (Adenine) - one of the nitrogenous bases (see Purine), occurring in nucleic acids DNA and RNA. See also ATF. ADENIT (adenitis) - inflammation of the prostate glands or more (or zhelezistopodobnyh structures). For example, when mesenteric adenitis (mesenteric adenitis) affects the lymph nodes (formerly called lymph glands) mesentery - folds of peritoneum that supports inside her bowel loops.

Adenovirus (Adenovirus) - a representative group of DNA viruses that cause a person infectious respiratory diseases, their symptoms resemble those that occur in the common cold.

Adenohypophysis (Adenohypophysis) - anterior pituitary.

Adenosis (Adenosis) - 1. Excessive growth or development of the glands. 2. Any disease of glands or zhelezopodobnyh structures, especially the lymph nodes.

Adenosine (Adenosine) - a compound which includes adenine and d-ribose, is present in the ATP. See also the nuke.

Adenoids (Adenoids), pharyngeal tonsils (Nasopharyngeal Tonsil) - unpaired cluster of lymphoid tissue in the arch and the posterior pharyngeal wall. Hypertrophy of the adenoids can interfere with breathing through your nose and break the cross Eustachian (auditory) tube, causing the patient exudative otitis

Adenoidectomy - surgical removal of the adenoids in patients with exudative otitis, or who have difficult breathing through the nose.

Adenocarcinoma (Adenocarcinoma) - malignant (epithelial) tumor consisting of glandular epithelial cells that make up the majority of the internal organs of the human body. This term is also used to describe tumors involving in the process of growth of human cancer. These tumors can be further classified according to the substances that they produce, for example: muco-secretory (mucus-secreting) and serous adenocarcinoma (serous adenocarcinoma). They can also be classified according to the microscopic arrangement of their cells, for example: papillary (papillary) (papillary) and follicular adenocarcinoma (follicular adenocarcinoma). The tumor may be solid or contain cysts (tsistadenokartsinoma (cystadenocarcinoma)). Each internal organ of the human body can be struck by this tumor, while there is a lot of their histological types, for example, the ovaries may be affected as mucinous and serous tsistadenokartsinomoy.

Adenolymphomd - see Uortina.

ADENOMA tumor (adenoma) - a benign epithelial tumor, originating from the glandular tissues in the survey process, it is clearly defined glandular-like structures. Adenoma could develop into a malignant tumor (see Adenocarcinoma). Sometimes it is easy to recognize in it a well-known tissue such as fibrous (fibroadenoma (fibroadenomas)). In other cases, such as bronchial adenoma, in the human body produced by the active compounds, which accelerate the growth of tumors (see Argentaffinoma). Tumors of various organs of the body, including the pituitary, are often classified according to their histological staining, for example: eosinophilic (eosinophil), basophilic (basophil) or chromophobe adenoma (chromophobe adenomas).

Adept (Adept) - antibody-directed enzyme prodrug therapy: emerging cancer treatment. The patient first entered the complex antitelfermentov which to target tumor cells, and then he entered the prodrug (pro-drug), is passive until until it interacts with a complex of antibody-enzymes. With their help, this prolskarstvo into a cytotoxic form which accumulates around the tumor and begins to destroy tumor cells without damaging normal tissue.

Adiposis, Liposis - excessive accumulation of fat in the body. May be caused by overeating, violations of hormonal regulation in the body, and as a result of metabolic disturbances in it. Morbid obesity (adiposis dolorosa) is more common in women than in men, and appears painful fatty deposits, whose appearance is accompanied by a breach of the functioning of the nervous system.

Administrator (Almoner) - officer in charge of medical treatment and welfare of patients (in hospital).

Adrenaline, Epinephrine - an important hormone produced by the adrenal medulla. He was released into the blood when "" fright, flight or in battle ", allowing the person to adapt to the situation and affecting circulation, muscular system, and metabolism in his body. Under the action of this hormone increases the frequency and strength of contractions of the heart muscle, as well as the frequency and depth of breathing, increases the rate of the metabolic processes, improving efficiency of muscles, muscle fatigue occurs much later. Simultaneously, blood supply to the urinary organs and gastro-intestinal tract is reduced, their muscles relax and the sphincter, by contrast, are declining. Initially it was thought that adrenaline is released in the human body through the sympathetic nerves, so they used to be called adrenergic nerves. In fact, the substance is mainly excreted norepinephrine, which then formed from the adrenaline. Injections of epinephrine well help in the treatment of asthma, as this is relaxing bronchial muscles. Epinephrine is used during surgery or injected through the endoscope to reduce blood loss, since under the action of this substance is the narrowing of blood vessels located in the skin and mucous membranes. Adrenaline is a member of a number of solutions used for prolonged local anesthesia, especially in dentistry.

Adrenergic - to describe the nerve fibers, using as the neurotransmitter norepinephrine. For comparison: the cholinergic.

Adrenoleukodystrophy - a hereditary disease that leads to various neurological disorders in both children and adults. Manifests itself as a progressive spastic paralysis of the legs and loss of sensitivity, lack of functioning of the adrenal gland and small compared with the normal size of the sex glands. Identification of anomalous zhirokislotnogo metabolism is of great importance for further possible use of drug therapy. It is also possible prenatal diagnosis of this disease.

ADP (adenosine diphosphate) (Adp, Adenosine Diphosphate) - a compound composed of adenine, ribose and two phosphate groups. ADP is present in cells and is involved in passing from the energy conversion

Adjuvant (Adjuvant) - any substance used in conjunction with other substances to increase the activity of the latter. Aluminum salts are often used as an adjuvant in the cooking process antidiphtheritic and tetanus vaccines: a result of keeping these toxins in the sediment as these salts increase the effectiveness of these toxins as antigens.

Azapropazon - anti-inflammatory drugs (see Drug nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug) used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, ankylosing spondylitis and gout. Appointed inside. Possible side effects: increased skin sensitivity to light, fluid retention in body tissues and intestinal bleeding. Trade name: revmoks (Rheumox).

Azatadine - an antihistamine drug used to treat hay fever, hives, itching and burning skin. Appointed inside. Possible side effects: hypersomnia, headache, nausea, loss of appetite. Trade name: optimin (Optimine).

Awthioprine - an immunosuppressant, is used primarily to ensure engraftment of any organ or tissue transplant. Also used to treat acute and chronic leukemia and inflammatory bowel disease (eg ulcerative colitis). In some cases, azathioprine can cause damage to bone marrow and cause the development of blood disorders, muscle weakness, and itching of the skin. Trade name: azathioprine (Imuran).

Braille (Braille) - alphabet, created by Luiz Braille (1809-1852) in 1837, in which each letter is represented as a certain set of convex points. During the reading of the blind grope their fingertips. This is the primary reading method used by blind and visually impaired people today.

Aviastine - an antihistamine drug, is applied as a spray into the nose for the treatment of hay fever. Possible side effects: irritation of the nose, impaired sense of taste. Trade name: rinolast (Rhinolast).

Azithromycin (Azithromycin) - an antibiotic used to treat respiratory, skin and other infections, as well as in the treatment of infectious diseases of soft tissues, especially if the disease is caused by pathogen Chlamydia trachomatis. Appointed inside. Possible side effects: allergic reactions, nausea, and vomiting. Brand name: Zithromax (Zithromax).

Azlocillin (Aziocillin) - ntibiotik type of penicillin, used to treat infections caused by the pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection Pscudomonas aeruginosa. Administered intravenously, the possible side effects: allergic reactions, nausea, and vomiting. Trade name: sekuropen (Securopen).

Azo-(Azo-), nitrogen-(Azoto-) - prefix indicates the presence of nitrogen-containing compounds, such, such as urea. For example, azotsrmiya (azothcrmia) increase in body temperature due to the presence of nitrogen-containing substances in the blood.

Azoospermid, Aspermia - complete absence of sperm in the semen. Associated with either a violation of sperm production in the convoluted seminiferous tubules testicular or with blocked ducts, excretory sperm from the testicles. In these cases, a testicular biopsy to determine the true cause of azoospermia. If it is associated with blocked ducts, it is possible to remove it surgically.

Nitrogen (Nitrogen) - gaseous chemical element - the main component of air (79%). Nitrogen is an essential component of proteins and nucleic acids, the person receives it with food product-containing proteins (nitrogen in the air, can not be not used directly in this form). Nitrogenous waste products excreted in the urine. Liquid nitrogen is used to freeze some tissue samples prior to laboratory studies. Designation: N.

Avotaemia - formerly known as uremia.

Azoturia - the presence in urine of abnormally high concentrations of nitrogen compounds, especially urea.

Aztreonam - an antibiotic, is administered as injections to treat infectious diseases of the lungs, bones, skin and soft tissues caused by Gram-negative organisms (see staining on the Thunder). Especially effective for the treatment of pulmonary infections in children with cystic fibrosis (pancreas). Possible side effects: pruritus, diarrhea, vomiting. Trade name: azaktam (Azactam).

YAG Laser (Yag Laser) - a laser active medium, which is a compound of yttrium, aluminum and garnet. This type of laser used for cutting tissue, such as in the implementation of the eye lens capsulotomy or iridotomy.

Acalculia - acquired inability to perform simple mathematical calculations. Is a typical symptom of parietal lobe of the brain. See Gerstmana syndrome.

Acanlhamoeba - widespread genus of amoebae, some of which sometimes cause the appearance of painful ulcers on the cornea of ​​the human eye.

Acanthosis - increasing the number of prickly epidermal cells in its germ layer, leading to thickening. Dermatosis characterized by significant papillomatoznymi growths (especially a lot of them happen on the skin of underarm), resulting in hyperpigmentation of the skin and the acquisition of its velvety shades (Acanthosis nigricans), to convince doctors, often also accompanied by increased tolerance to insulin. The disease can be both benign and malignant character. However, most doctors have to deal with its benign form (Pscudoacanthosis nigricans), often associated with obesity.

Acapnia, Hypocapnia - lack of or significant reduction in carbon dioxide content in the blood. This condition can develop as a result of deep breathing or low physical activity.

Acardia - acardia. Can occur in conjoined twins, with one of them whose heart is available, controls the process of circulation in both.

Acariasis (Acariasis)
- diseases caused by ticks, as well as symptoms of these diseases, the occurrence of which is most likely a result of tick bites (eg, allergies and dermatitis).

Mites (Acarid)
- mite family Acaridae.

Acaricide (Acaricide) - any chemical substance used to kill mites.

Acatalasia - congenital absence or low levels of catalase, the blood, leading to the oft-repeated infection and ulceration of the gums (gingivitis) and the oral mucosa. The disease is most common among the Japanese (disease Tahakary).

Akathisia - involuntary movements caused by some antipsychotic medications (eg, fenotiazonom). A man shows a significant hyperactivity, which can be confused with a sense of heightened emotion that is fixed to the patient were discharged the medicine.

DTP vaccine (Dpt Vaccine) - a combined vaccine against diphtheria, pertussis and tetanus toxoids manufactured from these bacteria and other antigens.

Akinesia (Akinesia) - disruption of normal muscle tone or sensitivity. In the case of akinetic epilepsy (akinctic epilepsy) may come a sudden loss of muscle tone, while the patient is falling, losing consciousness instantly. When akinetic mutism (akinctic mutism) in patients have a complete physical state of insensibility, though his eyes remained open and he can follow the movements committed around him. The disease is associated with the consequences of damage to the base of the brain.

Accommodation (Accommodation) - setting the refractive power dioptrical apparatus of the human eye by changing the curvature of the lens when the distance from the eye to the subject under consideration. When the ciliary (ciliary) muscle (see ciliary body) is in a weakened condition, attached to the ciliary body ciliary band is stretched and the lens flattens. In this condition the eye can see objects that are located on a remote distance from him. To consider items placed near, ciliary muscle contracts, and the voltage decreases ciliary girdle, so that the lens becomes more convex.

Aclarubicin (Aclarubicin) - antimitotic (delaying the process of cell division), a drug that is administered as injections in the treatment of leukemia and some other malignant diseases. An anthracycline antibiotic, possible side effects include nausea and vomiting, hair loss, and bone marrow. Trade name: aklatsin (Aclacin).

Monkshood (Aconite) - dried roots of a fighter (Aconitium napellus), containing three analgesic compounds: akonin, aconitine and pikrakonitin. Aconite has been used before for preparation of ointments applied in the muscle pain, as well as infusions, assisted by a toothache, but he is currently assigned to toxic compounds and expelled from the mass consumption.

Acrania (Acrania) - congenital complete or partial absence of the skull bones, resulting from the breach of intrauterine development.

Acrivastine (Acrivastine) - an antihistamine, used to treat hay fever and urticaria (skin rash allergic). Ingest. Possible side effects include increased drowsiness. Trade name: sempreks (Semprex).

Acriflavine (Acriflavine) - A dye used in the preparation of antiseptic skin preparations, as well as for disinfection of infected wounds. Can cause increased skin sensitivity to sunlight lucham.AKRO-(aero-) - a prefix, indicating: 1. Attitudes towards the extremities. For example: akrogipotermiya (acrohypothcrmy) - painful cold extremities (feet and hands). 2. Ratio to the height. For example: acrophobia (acrophobia) - morbid fear of heights. 3. Too strong a manifestation of a symptom. For example: akromaniya (acromania) - extreme degree of manifestation of mania.

Acrodermatitis (Acrodermatitis) - inflammation of the skin of the feet or hands. In the case of diffuse chronic akrodermatita observed swelling and redness of affected areas with their further atrophy. Causes of the disease is unknown; appropriate treatment as yet been found.

Erythredema (Acrodynia) - see Disease pink (pink disease).

Acromegaly (Acromegaty) - increase in the size of the hands, feet and face due to excessive secretion of growth hormone (somatotropin), which takes place at a tumor of the anterior pituitary. This tumor is treated with radiation therapy or removed surgically. See also Gigantism.

Acromion (Acromion) - long process in the upper half (that ends the spine of scapula), one of its part is connected to the clavicle and acromioclavicular generator-clavicular joint. - Acromial (acromial).

Asgoraraesthesiae - numbness, tingling in the feet and hands. See Paresthesia.

Acrosclerosis (Acrosclerosis) - a skin disease that is considered a kind of generalized scleroderma. Often also associated with Raynaud's disease, in which mainly affects the hands, face and feet.

Acrosome (Acrosome) - A special membrane structure in the front of heads of sperm. Destroyed immediately before fertilization (akrosomnaya reaction) to form a number of enzymes that facilitate penetration of sperm into the egg. Incomplete course akrosomnoy reaction is often a cause of infertility in men (see also Andrology).

Acrocentric (asrocentric) - on the chromosome where the centromere is located at its very end or very close to it.

Acrocyanosis (Acrocyanosis) - bluish color of the feet and hands due to slow passage of blood through small vessels located in the skin of these areas.

Axolemma (Axolemma) - Thin Cell (Plasma) membrane surrounding the protoplasm of an axon, visible only under an electron microscope.

Axon (Axon) - nerve fiber: single process extending from the cell body - neurons and transmit nerve impulses from him. In some neurons, the axon may reach one meter in length. Most axons are covered by myelin sheath (myelin - is repeatedly spun a double layer of plasma membrane of Schwann cells). At the boundary between two adjacent Schwann cells formed nodes of Ranvier node (nodes of Ranvier). The axon ends telodendronom - set terminal branches (telodendria); they are in contact with other nerves, muscle fibers or cells.

Axonotmesis - interruption of nerve fibers (axons) within the intact neural sheath. May arise as a result of high pressure or pressure on the nerve fiber, is accompanied by degenerative changes of the nerve above the point of interruption. The prognosis for nerve regeneration is good. For comparison: Nevrapraksiya, Nevrotmez.

Axoplasm (Axoplasm) - cytoplasm of the axon. There is a current axoplasm.

ACTH (Actg), Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (Adrenocortikotrophic), adrenocorticotropin (Adrenocortikot - hormone synthesized by the anterior pituitary gland. It is produced in large quantities in response to any stressful situation. ACTH controls the secretion of steroid hormones produced by the adrenal glands. There shall be generally in the form of injections to study functions adrenal gland or to treat certain rheumatic diseases (particularly children) and asthma.

Tissue plasminogen activator (Tissue Plasminogen Activator, Tpa, Tpa) - is present in the body protein capable of destroying blood clots forming (see thrombolysis), currently it is produced by genetic engineering (see alteplase). This protein requires the mandatory presence of fibrin in the body, which is a cofactor in addition, he is able to activate plasminogen on the surface of fibrin, which distinguishes it from other plasminogen activators such as streptokinase and urokinase. (Plasminogen activator contained in the tissues, are able to directly convert plasminogen into plasmin - Ed.)

Active Optical (Optical Activity) - a property of certain substances to rotate plane polarized light. Compounds in which this plane is rotated to the left side, called the left-turning (lacvorotatory) (abbreviated L-); compounds in which this plane is rotated to the right side, called pravovrashayuschimi (dextrorotatory) (abbreviated D-).

Active Transport (Active Transport) - (biochemistry), energy-dependent process by which certain substances (including ions, certain medications, and amino acids) pass through the membrane against the electrochemical gradient. This process can be slowed down by substances that affect the metabolism of cells (eg, through the use of large doses of digitalis).
Actin (Actin) - a protein found in muscles of the human body, plays an important role in the process of muscle contraction. See striated muscle.

Actinobacillus - genus of gram-negative aerobic bacteria, fixed, usually spherical or rodlike shape, and in rare cases may grow to branched filamentous structures. Usually Actinobacillus affect animals, from which the disease can be transmitted to humans.

Actinomycosis (Actinomycosis) - non-contagious disease caused by pathogen Actinomyces israelii; most often affects the lower jaw, but the disease can also affect the lungs, brain or intestine. The bacteria that cause the disease, usually present in the mouth in humans and may become pathogenic due to apical abscess or after tooth extraction. The disease is characterized by the formation of multiple fistulas, opening on the skin surface. Treatment is carried out by the suction of pus and a long course of antibiotics.

Actinomycetes (Actinomyces) - fixed genus of gram-positive gribopodobnyh bacteria pathogenic to humans and animals. A typical representative of A. israelii is the major causative agent of actinomycosis in man.

Actinomycin (Actinomycin) - cytotoxic drug, produced by microorganisms of genus Streptomyces; inhibits the growth of cancer cells. Exists in two forms, both of these forms are given to patients by injection. Actinomycin C can cause damage to bone marrow in humans.
Actinomycin D (kosmegen (Cosmegen), liovak (Lyovac)) may cause nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, blood diseases, as well as damage to bone marrow.

Actinotherapy - treatment of various diseases infrared or ultraviolet irradiation.

Actomyosin (Actomyosin) - a protein complex consisting of myosin and actin, is found in the muscle during its contraction. See striated muscle.

Acupuncture (Acupuncture) - the traditional Chinese system of healing, is a thin metal needles piercing specific areas of the skin for therapeutic purposes. Needle further stimulated by their rotation, or a weak electric current. There are a number of assumptions that such stimulation activates the functioning of deep sensory nerves, and this, in turn, leads to the fact that the pituitary gland and diencephalon begin to produce more endorphins - a natural analgesic substances produced by direct human brain. The method of acupuncture is widespread in the Far East, where used as a powerful analgesic, as well as in China, where it is often used as an alternative anesthesia for various surgical procedures. In Western countries, in spite of this, now you can find very few skilled professionals involved in acupuncture.

Acoustic (Acoustic) - referring to the perception of sound or sluhu. Acoustic (obstetrics, midwifery) - part of medicine dealing with issues of pregnancy, childbirth and the postpartum period (within six weeks after birth), when there is a restoration of the reproductive organs. For comparison: Gynecology. - Obstetrical (obstetricat). - Midwife (obstetrician, midwife).

ACF-Inhibitor (ACE Inhibitor) - angiotensin-converting enzyme. The class of drugs used to treat hypertension and heart failure. These drugs affect the human body by changing the activity of the enzyme that converts inactive angiotensin I into physiologically active angiotensin II, with a strong vasoconstrictor action. The absence of this substance in the human body allows the vessels to expand, which in turn leads to lower blood pressure. These medications are taken by mouth; typical of their representatives are captopril and enalapril. Possible side effects: weakness, dizziness, loss of appetite and skin rash.

Acceptor (Acceptor) - (biochemistry) a substance that facilitates the oxidation of a substrate with a low concentration by taking an additional amount of hydrogen ions.

Alactasia - absence or deficiency in the enzyme lactase, which plays an important role in the uptake of milk sugar (lactose). The intestines of all children present lactase, but in the process of child growth in approximately 10% of residents of the Nordic countries, 40% of Greeks and Italians and 80% of children from Africa and Asia, this enzyme disappears. Alactasia manifested in the form of the disease only if in writing ever used raw milk lactose is indigestible by the body in human diarrhea and abdominal pain.

Alanine (Alanine) - See Amino acids.

Whitepox, Smallpox White (Alastrim) - a weak form of smallpox, which causes only a small rash, and minor manifestations of fever. Medical name: variola minor (a weak form of smallpox).

Alverina citrate (Alverine Citrate) - antispasmodic used to treat irritable bowel syndrome, as well as some other intestinal diseases. Ingest. Possible side effects: a little flatulence. Trade name: alverkol (Alvcrcol), spazmonal (Spasmonal).

Algesimeter - a device for determining the sensitivity of skin to various stimuli, particularly pain.

Algesimeter (Dolorimetry) - determination of pain threshold. See algometer.

Aleukaemic - used to describe aleukemia - a disease in which blood is contained insufficient number of leukocytes. This condition usually develops after a condition in which the body produces excessive amounts of leukocytes, which is characteristic of leukemia.

Alexin - formerly known as serum components, it is now called complement.

Alexithymia - the difficulty of the psychological understanding of their own emotions and moods. Some psychiatrists believe that this is one of the ways people developing psychosomatic symptoms.

Alienation - (psychiatry): 1. A condition in which a person believes that his thoughts are controlled by someone else from the outside (depersonalization of personality). Is one of the symptoms of schizophrenia. 2. Psychosis.

Alizarin (Alizarin), Carmine alizarin (Alizarin Carmine) - aniline red, produced from anthracene (before it was obtained from plants - dye madder (Rubia tinctorum)). Alizarin is not soluble in water but readily soluble in alkalis, alcohol, and other similar substances. Used as an indicator of pH and as histochemical reagent for calcium, thallium, titanium and zirconium.
Alkalemiya (Alkalaemia) - an abnormally high content of alkali in the blood. May be associated with increased concentrations of alkali and / or decreasing the concentration of acid in the blood. See also alkalosis. For comparison: acidemia.

Alkalosis - a pathological condition characterized by abnormally high alkali content in fluids and tissues of the human body. May develop as a result of violations of the metabolic processes responsible for maintaining acid-base balance in the blood (see acid-base balance). Sometimes alkalosis is associated with loss of large amounts of acid during vomiting or abuse of sodium bicarbonate. Abnormally deep breathing in comparison with the performed physical exercise can lead to respiratory alkalosis (respiratory alkalosis). Alkalosis in a patient often manifests as muscle weakness or convulsions.

Alkaloid (Alkaloid) - one of the numerous substances of plant origin - a representative group of nitrogen-containing substances, which affects the human body. Many alkaloids are important drugs, such as morphine, quinine, atropine and codeine.

Alkaloid Vinca (Vinca Alkaloid) - Representative of antimitotic drugs (see cytotoxic drug) derived from the periwinkle (species Vinca rosca). By the vinca alkaloids, which are particularly widely used for the treatment of leukemias and lymphomas include vinblastine, vincristine and vindesine.

Homogentisuria (Alcaptonuria, Alkaptonuria) - congenital absence of the enzyme - homogentisic acid oxidase, which plays an important role in the normal cleavage of amino acids tyrosine and phenylalanine. The accumulation of homogentisic acid in the body causes darkening of the skin and eyes - they acquire a dark brown (ochronosis (ochronosis)), and leads to progressive joint damage, especially the spine. Gene responsible for this factor is recessive, so the children the disease can take place only if both parents carry the defective gene.

Alclometazone - corticosteroid medication prescribed for topical use in the form of a cream or ointment to treat inflammatory skin diseases. Possible side effects: thinning of the skin and allergic reactions. Trade name: Modrasonc.

Alcoholism (Alcoholism) - a syndrome of physical dependence on alcohol, where the sudden cessation can cause withdrawal symptoms such as tremor, fear, hallucinations or delusions (see the Blue Devils). The risk of developing alcoholism in humans and the symptoms of its manifestation depends on the amount of alcohol consumed. For example, where the use of strong nalitkov socially legitimized, the symptoms of alcoholism are more pronounced. Usually, after several years of regular use of alcoholic beverages in humans develops addicted to them, although this varies from person to person and can fluctuate from year to forty years. In alcoholism reduced the human intellect, his deteriorating physical skills, memory and reason; social skills such as sociability, saved until the very late stage of the disease. Alcohol abuse can also cause cardiomyopathy, peripheral neuritis, liver cirrhosis, and enteritis. Alcohol Treatment is usually held in a psychiatric hospital where the patient's body first cleaned of accumulated harmful substances in it, and then help the patient to understand the psychological motives that drove him to this state. In the course of treatment may be useful such drugs as disulfiram (Antabuse), since they cause vomiting when using human spirits.

Allantois (Allantois) - blastoderm, which develops from the posterior intestine of the embryo. Its outer layer (mesoderm) contains suitable to the placenta blood vessels, thus forming part of the umbilical cord. This blastoderm is small in size, and in the process of fetal development continues to decline (see Urahus). - Allantoic (allantoic).

Allele (Allelomorph) - See Allele.

Allergen (Allergen) - any antigen that causes allergic reactions in people sensitive to it. Allergens vary widely and can affect different tissues and organs of the human body. Pollen, animal dander, feathers or dust may lead to the development of hay fever in humans; mites that live in houses, are the cause of people developing some types of asthma, a number of medicines, dyes and cosmetics, and most other chemicals may cause to the appearance of rashes and dermatitis, some types of food allergies contribute to the development of diarrhea or constipation, and may manifest as false acute food poisoning. When the allergen is identified (see sample cutaneous), in some cases, you can try to implement its desensitization to mitigate or prevent the development of new attacks of allergies. - Allergenic (allergenic).

Allergy (Allergy) - a condition in which the human body becomes more sensitive to certain antigens (called allergens). These antigens cause a human characteristic symptoms, if you later enter the body through breathing, with food, with medicines or by some other means. In a healthy person in the blood and tissues of the antibodies enter the appropriate reaction and destroy specific antigens without any further adverse consequences for human beings. However, if a person has developed an allergy, the reaction of allergen with the skin-sensitizing antibody (reagin) is accompanied by the development of a number of side effects such as loss of cells, production of histamine and serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine), inflammation of the tissues, and also appear some of the other symptoms characteristic of for allergies. Different kinds of allergies affect different tissues of the human body and can manifest itself in the form of local or negeneralizovannyh symptoms ranging from asthma and hay fever and up to the strong manifestations of dermatitis, gastroenteritis, or a very strong shock (see anaphylaxis). - Atopic (allergic).

Allyloestrenol - a synthetic female sex hormone (see progestogen) is used to treat uterine bleeding. Ingest. Trade name: (Gestanin).

Allogeneic (Allogeneic) - used to describe a graft obtained from a donor of the same species as the recipient, but with different histocompatibility.

Alloisoleucine - one of the isomers of isoleucine - amino acids present in most proteins.

Allopathy (Allopathy) - (in homeopathic medicine), traditional system of medicine, which are used for the treatment of drugs, creating in the patient's condition, antagonistic to the fact that it was caused by a disease, symptoms of the disease so weakened or completely pass. For comparison: Homeopathy.

Allopurinol (Allopurinol) - drugs used to treat chronic gout. Helps to reduce uric acid in tissues and blood of a patient. Usually taken by mouth; possible side effects - nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, headache, fever, stomach pain and skin rash. In rare cases, can cause nerve damage and liver enlargement. Trade names: (Hamarin), (Zyloric).

Allograft (Allogrqft) - see Gomotransplantat.

Aloxiprin - a compound derived from aluminum oxide and aspirin. Action and the scope of the compounds similar to aspirin, but it is more stable and less irritating to gastric mucosa and gastric bleeding. Trade name; palaprin forte (Palaprin forte).

Alopecia (Alopecia), Alopecia (Baldness) - lack of hair, where they usually grow. Nerubtsovaya alopecia (non-scarring alopecias) is a male pattern baldness, most commonly observed immediately with several representatives of the male in the family, male-pattern baldness among women (androgenetic alopecia) is characterized by hair loss with age. Acute hair loss (telogen effluvium), in which most or all of the hair of a man fell out, but then again started to grow, can develop after pregnancy or suffering a serious illness. In the case of alopecia areata (alopecia arcata) the patient has bald areas on which can again begin to grow hair, the disease is a type-specific autoimmune disease. When cicatricial alopecia (scarring (or cicatricial) alopecias) lost hair grow longer, examples of its manifestations could be lichen planus and discoid red volchanka.

Alprawlam - a tranquilizer on the basis of benzodiazepine for treating anxiety disorders, as well as calming tool. Ingested orally, possible side effects: drowsiness and delirium. Brand name: Xanax (Xanax).

Alprostadil (Alprostadil) - based drug prostaglandin, is appointed by injection to improve pulmonary blood flow in newborns with congenital heart disease before surgery, prevents overlap of the blood vessel connecting the aorta to the pulmonary artery (see Flow arteriosus). Possible side effects include weakening of the respiratory system. Trade name: prostin BP (Prostin VR).

Als (Als) - Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. See Diseases of the motor nerves.

Albendawie - de-worming medication, used to drive the ascarid nematodes and other worms, parasites in the human gut. Ingest. Possible side effects: headache, dizziness, fever, skin rashes and hair loss. Trade name: (Eskazolc).

Albinism (Albinism) - congenital deficiency or absence of pigment in skin, hair and iris of the eye

Albino (Albino) - a person suffering from congenital deficiency or absence of pigment (melanin) in the body. In albinos usually have white hair, pink skin and eyes. Pink color due to the fact that the blood shines through the blood vessels, whereas normally the color pigment masks it.

Albumin (Albumin) - the protein is highly soluble in water and coagulates when exposed to heat. For example, serum albumin (serum albumin), is present in blood plasma, playing an important role in preserving its volume. Albumin is produced by the liver, the inability to produce this protein is a typical symptom of a chronic liver disease - tsirroza. (albuminuria), proteinuria (proteinuria) - the presence of serum albumin, serum globulin and other serum proteins in the urine. Can be observed in some diseases of the kidneys or cardiovascular system. However, albuminuria is not always associated with human disease: it can also occur after considerable physical exertion or after a very long standing (orthostatic albuminuria).

Albumose - a substance intermediate between albumin and peptone, is produced in the process of splitting of proteins by pepsin and other endopeptidase (see peptidase).

Alveolus (Alveolus, Multiplier. Alveoli) - 1. In the lung - air bubble irregularly shaped microscopic size. From each of the alveolar pollutants emitted by the respiratory or respiratory, bronchial tubes open about 20-30 alveoli. The walls of the alveoli (alveolar walls) without criss-crossing a dense network of tiny blood vessels - capillaries. Alveoli are separated by interalveolar septa and lined inside alveolotsitami (pneumocytes) of two types: respiratory (flattened), which form together with the capillary wall of the air-blood (aerogematichesky) barrier through which gas exchange occurs between air and blood, and large (granular) that produce surfactant. Light a newborn baby contains approximately 20 million alveoli. Around the age of eight the number of alveoli in the lungs reaches 600 - 700 million, while remaining an adult man (ed.). 2. Alveolar TOOTH - part of the upper or lower jaw, which vkolocheny roots of the teeth (see also the lower jaw. Upper jaw). After extraction, most of it is absorbed. 3. Cavity of the complex alveolar glands (see also the acinus). 4. Any other small cavity, indentation or bag. - Alveolar (alveolar).

Atveolitis - inflammation of the alveoli, or any number of alveoli. Chronic inflammation of the walls of the alveoli in the lungs usually associated with inhalation of organic dust (external allergic alveolitis (external allergic alvcolitis); see the Light, "" lover of birds, "" Easy, "" farmer "), but may develop spontaneously (fibrosing alveolitis of unknown origin (cryptogcnic fibrosing alveolitis)). The latter may be associated with various connective tissue diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis or multiple sclerosis general. Both types of the disease may progress slowly, moving in fibrosis, both of whom usually respond well to treatment corticosteroid drugs.

Dry Socket - a painful condition which interferes with the normal healing after tooth extraction wells. Instead, to fill a blood clot, opustevaet hole as a result of nonspecific cross infection, and palliative treatment usually takes 10-14 days.

Alveus (Atveus) - the cavity groove or channel. Hippocampus channel (alveus hippocampi) is a bundle of nerve fibers located in the brain and creates a trough in which lies and hippocampus.

Algid - cold: usually used to describe the cold skin, occurs in patients with some forms of malaria.

Aldesleukin - protein interleukin-2, obtained by recombinant DNA technology (genetic engineering). Improves immune system functioning, inducing T cells to become natural killer cells and thus causing them to actively fight cancer cells. Assigned to the injections. The results of its use in the fight against cancer cells (including melanoma and renal cell carcinoma) are encouraging. Trade name: (Prolcukin).

Aldomet - see methyldopa.

Aldosterone (Aldosterone) - a steroid hormone (see corticosteroid) is synthesized in the adrenal cortex and acts on the kidneys regulate fluid and electrolyte balance in the human body (the contents of potassium and sodium). May be administered by injection in the form of replacement therapy, if the adrenal cortex allocates insufficient amount of this hormone, as well as to remove the patient from shock.

Aldosteronism (Aldosteronism) - increased secretion of aldosterone - a hormone produced by the adrenal cortex. As a result, the body breaks down the water-salt balance (the contents of potassium, sodium, and water does not meet the norm). Aldosteronism is one of the causes of high blood pressure (hypertension) in humans. See also Conn's syndrome.

Alcuronium - a drug that causes a complete relaxation of the muscles (see Muscle relaxant). It is used for anesthesia; appointed by injection. In some cases, medication is slowing the recovery of spontaneous breathing, so that you may need to start doing CPR on the patient. Trade name: alloferin (Alloferin).

Alteplase (Alteplase) - Tissue plasminogen activator obtained by recombinant DNA technology (genetic engineering). Alteplase is used for sucking blood clots (see Tools fibrinolysis), especially in the coronary arteries of the heart. Assigned to the injections. Possible side effects: local bleeding, cerebral hemorrhage, nausea and vomiting. Trade name: Actilyse (Actilyse).
Alpha-blockers (Alpha Blacker), Alpha-Adrenergic Blacker - a medicinal substance that prevents stimulation of alpha-adrenergic receptor nerve endings of sympathetic nervous system using adrenalinopodobnyh hormones. As a consequence, causes dilation of blood vessels (vasodilation) and leads to a decrease in blood pressure. For alpha-blockers include the following drugs: doksazotsin, phentolamine, fenoksibenzamin, timoksamin, indoramin and prazotsin. An overdose of these medicines can lead to a sharp drop in blood pressure, tachycardia, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, dry mouth, flushing of the skin, convulsions, lethargy and coma.

Alfacalcidot - a synthetic form of vitamin D, is used to raise the level of calcium in the blood in osteomalacia, as well as some bone disorders associated with the presence in humans of a kidney disease. Taken orally or by injection is appointed. Trade name: Alpha-One (One-Alpha). Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) (alpha-fetoprotein, afp) - a protein produced in the liver and yolk sac of the fetus, present in amniotic fluid and in the secondary form in the mother's blood. The content of AFP can be determined by analysis of maternal blood, which is between 16 and 18 weeks of gestation for prenatal diagnosis of some possible diseases of the fetus. The content of AFP can be elevated above normal in the case of an open neural tube defects or any defects in its development in the fetus (such as spina bifida), twins and triplets, open defects of the abdominal wall (for example, gastroehizise), as well as in case of death of the fetus. AFP content is reduced in Down's syndrome. It should be remembered that the maintenance of the AFP is strongly influenced by factors such as gestational age and weight of the mother, so they must be taken into consideration when interpreting the results. If the results were unexpectedly high, or conversely, low, it shows an additional surveys (eg, ultrasound). See Ultrasound. Alpha-fetoprotsin produced in the human body and certain kinds of tumors (see markers of tumor).
Alfentanil Hydrochloride (Alfentanil Hydrochloride) - a narcotic drug, an analgesic, is used to reduce severe pain. Assigned to the injections. Trade name: (Rapifen).

Aluminium Hydroxide - safe antacid and laxative slow action. Taken orally in the form of gel used in the treatment of digestive disorders, stomach ulcers or duodenal ulcers, as well as reflux esophagitis. Trade name: (Aludrox).

Amauivsis - partial or complete blindness, not associated with pathology of the eye. For example, passing blindness (amaurosis fugax) - a condition in which vision loss is temporary. - (amaurotic).

Amalgam - any alloy, which includes mercury. In dental amalgam fillings are made by mixing an alloy of silver with mercury in a special device called (amalgamator).

Amanladine - an antibacterial drug, whose action is aimed at preventing viruses from entering human cells, is used to treat influenza. Since taking this drug stimulates dopamine in the human brain, it is also often used in the treatment of Parkinson's disease. The most common side effects: irritability, poor coordination of movements, and insomnia. Trade name: simmet (Ambivalence) - (in psychology) the coexistence of opposing tendencies or emotions (eg love and hate) in relation to the same individual or subject. Excessive and the prevailing ambivalence is considered, according to Bleuler, a characteristic feature shizofrenii.rel (Symmetrel).

Ambivalence - (in psychology) the coexistence of opposing tendencies or emotions (eg love and hate) in relation to the same individual or subject. Excessive and the prevailing ambivalence is considered, according to Bleuler, a characteristic feature of schizophrenia.

Amblyopia - visual impairment is not associated with any disease of the eye or visual system. Practically this strict definition is not always satisfied. For example, in the case of toxic amblyopia (toxic amblyopia), caused by exposure to the human body of nicotine, alcohol and some drugs, or vitamin deficiency is always some damage to the optic nerve. The most common type of amblyopia is amblyopia ex anopsia, in which factors are affecting strabismus, cataracts, and some other anomalies in the optical properties of the eye (see refraction), in which a person can not normally see from an early age.

Amblyoscope, Orthoptoscope , Synoplophore - a device for measuring the convergence angle of view (strabismus) and the definition of binocular vision in humans. Consists of two L-shaped tubes and short handles that are joined pivotally so that the long handles pointing in the opposite direction from each other. The subject turned to the short end, and each eye sees through the lens system and mirror a different picture that appears at the other end of each tube. If the patient has strabismus, the tube can be adjusted so that the short handles coincide with the direction of gaze of each eye.

Amoeba (Amoeba, Multiplier. Amoebae) - protozoa jelly-like consistency, not having the correct and constant form. Meet in "water, soil and other moist places; move and feed with a large number of protrusions on the body (see pseudopodium). Some amoebae are pathogenic to humans (see Rhode Entamoeba). See also the simplest. - (amoebic).

Amoebiasis - see Dysentery.

Amoeboma - a tumor that develops in a straight or colon due to parasitic protozoa Entamoeba histolytica, which take root and destroy the walls of the intestines. The tumor may ulcerate and become infected with pus (pyogenic) bacteria, which cause an active inflammation of the intestinal wall. The tumor usually hardens, and may even clog the intestines.

Amoebocyte - cells are capable of moving through the movement of the protoplasm is similar to an amoeba.

Amelia - congenital absence of arms or legs due to defects in utero. This anomaly of fetal development often associated with thalidomide in early pregnancy. See also Fokomeliya
Ameloblast - cells producing enamel; disappears just before the eruption zubov. (ameloblastoma) - a local cancer jaw. It is believed that develops from the ameloblast ameloblastoma, although the tumor cells and does not contain in the structure of enamel. Previously, this tumor is called ameloblastoma (adamantinoma); now this term is no longer used, since it assumes the appearance of an equally firm to the touch of Education, as the enamel (which is not true!).

Amelogenesis (Amelogenesis) - the formation of enamel ameloblast; this process is fully completed before teething. Amelogenesis imperfecta (amelogenesis impcrfecta) is an inherited defect in which disrupted the formation of tooth enamel. The tooth has an unusual surface, but nevertheless is not prone to premature failure.

Amenorrhoea - the absence or abnormal cessation of menstruation in women. Usually there are no monthly until puberty, in addition, they are terminated during pregnancy and milk secretion, as well as at the end of the reproductive period (see Menopause). Primary amenorrhea (primary amenorrhoea) is characterized by the fact that women older than 18 years with signs of puberty, absence of menstrual periods. May occur in the absence of a woman's uterus or ovaries, and various genetic disorders (eg, Turner syndrome) or a hormonal imbalance. In secondary amenorrhea (secondary amenorrhoea) menstruation ceases after puberty. Possible causes of secondary amenorrhea may be associated with diseases of the hypothalamus (part of the brain), the lack of functioning ovaries, pituitary or thyroid disease, mental disorders, depression, anorexia nervosa, as well as the significant changes occurring in the environment or in personal life .

Amentia (Amentia) - mental retardation. See Oligophrenia.

Amethocaine - a potent local anesthetic. Used for pain relief surface of the skin and mucous membranes of eye, ear, nose and throat during surgery, in addition, is sometimes used for spinal anesthesia.

Ametropia (Ametropia) - refractive errors, which manifests itself in the clouding of the resulting image on the retina. See Astigmatism, Hyperopia. Myopia. For comparison: emmetropia.
Amyl nitrite (Arnyl Nitrite) - a drug that relaxes smooth muscles, especially the blood vessels. Assigned to the inhalation is used mainly to treat breast Noah toad (angina). Rapidly absorbed and acts on the human body, causing a drop in blood pressure. Possible side effects: flushing, fainting and headache. An overdose of the drug can cause a person increased excitability, vomiting and turning blue skin.
Amylase (Amylase) - an enzyme found in saliva and the juice released by the pancreas during digestion of starch when the latter is split into glucose, maltose and dextrin. Amylase and hydrolyzes glycogen to form glucose, maltose and dextrin.
Amilobarbiton (Amylobarbitone) - barbiturate intermediate steps. Prolonged use of this drug can lead to dependence on him, and his overdose - serious poisoning (see Barbiturizm). Trade name: amytal (Amytal).
Amylose (Amylose) - See Starch.
Amyloid (Amyloid) - a glycoprotein, similar to starch precipitate in the internal organs in amyloidosis. Amyloid protein found in the brains of patients with Alzheimer's disease, however, what role it plays in the development of this disease still remains unclear.
Amyloidosis (Amyloidosis) - liver, kidney, spleen and other organs caused krahmalopodobnym substance - amyloid. In primary amyloidosis (primary amyloidosis) the disease occurs without any apparent reason, secondary amyloidosis (secondary amyloidosis) occurs as a complication of chronic infectious diseases such as tuberculosis, leprosy, or Hodgkin's disease. Amyloidosis is very common for a genetic disorder, called the Mediterranean fever (see polyserositis).
Amiloride (Amiloride) - a diuretic, causing increased excretion from the body of sodium and chlorine is often administered in combination with diuretic drugs, which include the thiazides (eg, hydrochlorothiazide in medicine, are called moduretik (Moduretic)). This helps reduce the loss of calcium in the process of receiving data of drugs. During the reception of amiloride in the patient may develop dizziness and weakness; prolonged use of this drug can lead to excessive accumulation of calcium in the blood. Trade name: midamor (Midamor).

Aminoglycosides (Aminoglycosides) - a group of antibiotics that are effective against many bacteria. These include: gentamicin, kanamycin, neomycin and streptomycin. Due to their toxicity (side effects include kidney damage and ear), these drugs are used only in cases where less toxic drugs are ineffective or contraindicated in force for any reason. Usually appointed by injection.
Aminoglyutetiamid (Aminoglutethimide) - a drug used in the treatment of progressive breast cancer. Prevents the synthesis of adrenal steroids (medical adrenalectomy) as well as inhibits the response of the peripheral conversion of androgens to estrogsny. Is taken by mouth, usually in combination with corticosteroid replacement therapy. Side effects that occur mainly at high doses of the drug, may manifest as increased sleepiness, dizziness, skin rash and short. Trade name: orimetsn (Orimcten). Amino acids (amino acid) - an organic compound, which includes an amino group (-NH2) and carboxyl group (-COOH). Amino acids are the main component of all proteins (proteins). In the process of decomposition of proteins in the human body formed following amino acids: alanine, arginine, asparagine, glutamic acid, cysteine, cystine, glutamine, glycine, aspartic acid, lysine, leucine, isoleucine, histidine, valine, proline, threonine, tyrosine, serine, tryptophan, phenylalanine and methionine. Some of these amino acids can be synthesized directly in the human body, while others, including the essential (basic) amino acids must be ingested with food. A number of amino acids found in the human body was not found in proteins, these include: citrulline, ornithine, taurine and gamma-aminobutyric acid.
The indispensable amino acid (Essential Amino Acid) - amino acids required for normal growth and development, but is not synthesized in it. Normally the body gets the essential amino acids from foods rich in protein (such as liver, eggs and dairy products). In total there are eight essential amino acids: tryptophan, lysine, phenylalanine, threonine, valine, methionine, leucine and isoleucine (in addition, arginine and histidine are essential amino acids for children - Ed.).
Aminopeptidase (Aminopeptidase) - any of the enzymes present in the intestine, which causes cleavage of peptides by removing amino acids from the end of the polypeptide tsepi.AMINOFILLIN (aminophylline) - a drug that relaxes smooth muscle and stimulates respiration. Used to expand the airways in asthma and emphysema, to expand the coronary vessels with angina pectoris (angina), as well as a diuretic, particularly when edema. Assigned to injections or suppositories. Possible side effects include: nausea, vomiting, dizziness, heart palpitations. See also theophylline. Trade name: pekram (Resgam).
Amiodarone (Amiodarone) - antiarrhythmic drug, used to restore heart rhythm in its various violations, including atrial fibrillation and heart palpitations. Assigned to the tablets or injections. Side effects are unknown. Brand name: Cordarone X (Cordarone X).
Amyotonia Congenital (Amyotonia Congenita), Oppenheim's syndrome (Floppy Baby Syndrome} - formerly known as various congenital diseases in which the muscles of the child are weak and passive (gipotonichnymi). These terms are almost obsolete, as is now more accurate diagnosis to determine and explain the causes of this disease in children.
Amyotrophy (Amyotrophy) - progressive loss of muscle mass, accompanied by a weakening of these muscles. Associated with the disease of the nerve, which stimulates the affected muscle. Amyotrophy is a characteristic symptom of any chronic neuropathy, in addition, it may be the most obvious neurological manifestations of diabetes mellitus and meningovascular syphilis. The combination of amyotrophy and muscle spasm may occur in various forms of diseases of motor nerves.
Holoschisis (Amitosis) - a direct division of cell nuclei, in which the nucleus divides into two (in this process is not involved in mitosis)
Amitriptyline (Amitriptyline) - a tricyclic antidepressant, has a mild tranquilizing effect. The most common side effects include: increased drowsiness, dizziness, numbness and tingling in the extremities. Trade names: elatrol (Elatrol), triptizol (Tryptizol).
Amlodipine (Arnlodipine) - calcium antagonist used for the treatment of angina pectoris (angina). Ingest. Possible side effects include: headache, dizziness, fatigue, nausea and swelling. Trade name: truth (Istin). Amnesia (amnesia) - partial or complete loss of memory due to physical injury, illness, taking certain drugs or psychological trauma (see confabulation. Fugue. Suppression). Anterograde amnesia (antcrograde amnesia) - amnesia for the events that followed the injury, retrograde amnesia (retrograde amnesia) - amnesia for trauma preceding the event. Some patients may simultaneously observe both types of amnesia.
Amnion (Amnion) - Protective blastoderm formed first over the region of the back of the embryo and then grow in size and completely closing it inside the amniotic sac, the amnion covers the umbilical cord, extends outward and is included in the chorion, occupying virtually all the space in it. Double containment - amniohorion (amniochorion) usually erupts at the time of birth. - Amniotic (amniotic).
Amnioscopy (Amnioscopy) - a study of amniotic fluid inside the amniotic sac with a special tool - amnioscope (amnioscopc), which entered into through the abdominal wall. This allows us to directly observe the fetus inside of the cavity. Cervical amnioscopy (cervical amnioscopy), performed in the later stages of pregnancy, allows using various tools (eg, fetoscope) examine the contents of the amniotic sac through the cervix. At the time of the survey contained within the cavity fluid can be taken for analysis without amnion puncture, can also be analyzed mekoniya.AMNIOTOMIYa (amniotomy), REVERSE Artificial membranes (artificial rupture of membranes, ARM) - a surgical intervention, consisting of the holding of amnion puncture surrounding the fetus in the uterus.
Amniocentesis (Amniocentesis) - aspirate fluid (amniotichsskoy fluid) in which the embryo in the womb, by piercing the amniotic sac through the abdominal wall. Since amniotic fluid contains in its structure the cells of the embryo (mainly from the surface of his skin), perhaps to study the structure of chromosomes, so that if any anomalies in their composition could be prenatally diagnose a particular disease of the fetus (such as Down syndrome) . Metabolic disorders and some other diseases, such as spina bifida, can also be diagnosed prenatally on the basis of biochemical analysis of cells or amniotic fluid (see Alfafetoprotein). Despite the risk of miscarriage during amniocentesis, if the transaction is a qualified specialist, this risk is greatly reduced. The need for amniocentesis is no longer, if the parents disagree on abortion in cases of serious abnormalities in the fetus.
Amnihuk (Amnihook) - a small flexible hook that is used when performing amniotomy. Inserted through the cervix.
Amodiaquine (Amodiaquine) - The antimalarial drug, similar in its effects on the human body with hlorokvinom. In addition, the medicine used to treat lupus, leprosy and rheumatoid arthritis. In the dosages used to treat malaria, has almost no side effects, but prolonged use can cause a bluish gray plaque in the corners of the eyes, finger nails and hard palate.
Amoksapin (Atoharte) - a tricyclic antidepressant, in its effect similar to imipramine. Ingest. An overdose of the drug can lead to the development of acute renal failure, convulsions and coma. Trade name: asendis (Asendis).
Amoxicillin (Amoxicillin) - a broad spectrum antibiotic used in the treatment of diseases caused by various microorganisms. Ingest. Possible side effects: nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, skin rashes and anemia. If you are sensitive to penicillin patient use of this drug is contraindicated. Brand name: Amoxil (Amoxil). AMOROLFIN (amorolfme) - an antifungal drug used to treat ringworm, candidiasis, and some fungal infections, skin and nails. Used topically as a cream or nail polish, possible side effects include itching and transient burning sensation. Trade name: lotseril (Loceryl).
Amp (Ampere) - the basic unit in the SI system, indicating the effect of electric current. Equals the force of the current flowing through the conductor resistance of 1 ohm when applied between its ends a potential difference of 1 V. A more precise definition states that the amp is equal to the current strength, which in passing through two parallel conductors of infinite length and negligible cross-sectional area, located in vacuum at 1 meter from each other, would have caused the section of the conductor 1 meter long interaction force equal to 2x10-7 N / m. Symbol: A.
Ampicillin (Ampicillin) - an antibiotic used to treat various infectious diseases of the urinary, respiratory, liver and gastrointestinal tract. Inefficient relative to penicillinase so it should not be given in cases where the disease is caused by germs are generated by this enzyme. Taken orally or by injection is appointed; the possible side effects: nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, may develop a variety of allergic reactions. Trade names: amfipen (Amfipen), penbritin (Penbritin).
Ampoule (Ampoule, Ampule) - hermetically sealed glass or plastic capsule containing one dose of the drug in a sterile medical solution for injection.
Amputation (Amputation) - removal of a limb, part, or any other body part. This term usually describes a certain type of amputation. Is a fairly common operation in the surgical practice, now commonly used only in case of severe limb injuries, or mainly in the elderly where, because of impaired blood circulation in the limbs developed gangrene in her. In carrying out the amputation surgeon takes into account the nature of the patient and the type of prosthesis, which he will use in the future.
Amputation (Dismemberment) - amputation of the feet, hands or any part of the limb.
Amputation of the leg with extensive resection of pelvic girdle (Hindquarter Amputation) - surgery is to remove all the legs together with the adjacent part of the pelvis. Usually performed in the case of soft tissue sarcoma, or bone thigh or buttocks. For comparison: the forequarter amputation.

Forequarter amputation (Forequarter Amputation) - the operation is to remove the entire upper limb, including shoulder blade and collarbone. It is usually done sarcoma of bone or soft tissue formed in the upper arm or shoulder. For comparison: the amputation of the leg with extensive resection of the pelvic girdle.
Amsakrin (Amsacrine) - cytotoxic drug, appointed by injection for the treatment of various forms of cancer. Possible side effects: nausea, vomiting, hair loss, as well as effects on hematopoietic cells of bone marrow. Trade name: amsidin (Amsidine).
AMP (adenosine monophosphate) (Amr, Adenosine Monophosphate} - a compound composed of adenine, ribose and a phosphate group. Is found in human cells, is involved in processes that require the transformation of energy (see ATP).
Amphetamine (Amphetamine) - sympathomimetic drug, which has a pronounced stimulating effect on the central nervous system. It relieves fatigue manifestations and causes the patient's feeling of well being, enhances intelligence. This medicine also used to treat narcolepsy, mild neuroses on the basis of depression and obesity, but particularly important to note here its application in the treatment of hyperkinetic syndrome in children. Ingested orally, possible side effects: insomnia and irritability. In patients with rapidly developing tolerance to amphetamine, so long, its use may lead to patient depending on him.
Amphiarthrosis (Amphiarthrosis) - slow-moving compound bone, in which their surfaces are separated by cartilage, which has a small gap (see the symphysis), or cartilage (see synchondrosis).
Amfornye Respiratory Sounds (Amphoric Breath Sounds) - see respiratory sounds.
Amphotericin B (Amphotericin) - an antibiotic derived from the bacterium Streptomyces nodosus; used for treatment of asymptomatic fungal infections is not effective against bacteria and viruses. This drug should not be taken inside, so it is usually administered to the patient intravenously. The most common side effects include: headache, fever, muscle aches and diarrhea. In some cases, can cause the kidneys. Trade names: fungilin (Fungilin), Fungizone (Fungizone). AN-(an-) - prefix. See A-. Anabolism (anabolism) synthesis of organic substances (eg, proteins and fats) from simple compounds ingested with food. See also Anabolic Metabolism.
Anabolic (Anabolic) - working on metabolic processes, the formation of organic substances, particularly protein. Anabolic agents generally are synthetic analogs of male sex hormones (see Androgen) is etiloestrenol, nandrolone, oxymetholone, and stanozolol. All of them are used to increase body weight in patients with low birthweight (especially in the elderly, and persons suffering a serious illness) for stimulation of hematopoietic bone marrow. Some anabolic steroids can cause virilization in women and lead to various dysfunctions pecheni.ANAGEN (anagen) - growth phase of hair follicles, lasting from two to three years. It is followed by an intermediate phase, called katagenom and the final phase, telogen, each of which lasts about two weeks. On average, 85% of the time the hair grows in the anagen phase, so at this time there is their strong growth. On the person's head usually grows by about 100,000 hairs, and each day about 100 of them drop out.
Anakre (Anakhre) - see Gund.
Anakrotiya (Anacrotism) - abnormal curve of the pulse wave. Can be observed in aortic stenosis. - Anakrotichesky (anacrotic).
Analgesia (Analgesia) - decreased pain perception, not accompanied by the shutdown of consciousness and the sense of touch. May develop as a result of an accident, if the nerves are damaged or affected by any disease, or caused specifically by introducing a pain medication (see Analgesics). Local anesthesia can be a different call local analgesia (local analgesia). See also Relative Analgesia.
Relative analgesia (Relative Analgesia) - method of sedation, most often used in dentistry, during which the patient inhales a mixture of nitrous oxide and oxygen. The patient in this case all the time in full consciousness, this method is applied in addition to local anesthesia in humans with increased nervousness.
Analgesic (Analgesic) - 1. The drug, promoting a decrease in pain. Weak analgesics such as aspirin and paracetamol, are used to reduce headache or a toothache, as well as in the case of mild rheumatic pain. Potent narcotic analgesic (narcotic analgesics), such as morphine and pethidine, are used only to reduce the very intense pain as humans can develop dependence on these drugs and addictive to them (see also drugs, opium). Some painkillers, including aspirin, indomethacin and fsnilbutazon, along with that is antipyretic and anti-inflammatory drugs, so often used in the treatment of rheumatism (see also Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NPLP)).
Analeptic (Analeptic) - a group of drugs that promote the return of consciousness in the patient in a coma or fainting. These include doxapram, niketamid and naloxone. Analeptics have a stimulating effect on the central nervous system, in contrast to the effects obtained by large doses of narcotics, which, conversely, inhibit the central nervous system.
Analysis (Analysis) - (in psychology) awareness and understanding of complex mental processes, or life experience. There are several analysis systems used by various schools of psychology such as psychoanalysis, transactional analysis (transactional analysis), in which human relationships are explained using psychoanalytic terms and definitions, as well as functional analysis (functional analysis), in which human behavior in a a particular point in time are thoroughly described with reference to the frequency of its manifestations, the facts leading up to this kind of behavior and the subsequent aftermath.
Analysis (Assay) - a test or a test that allows to determine the effect of the solution, the proportions of components in a mixture of compounds, and properties of the drug or dispensing. See also the bioassay.
Immunological analysis (Immunoassay) - one of several methods for determination of antigens and antibodies in the body. See immunoelectrophoresis, immunofluorescence, radioimmunoassay.
Analysis of Blood (Blood Count, Blood Test) - determination of the number of different blood cells in a known volume of blood (usually expressed as the number of cells falling per liter of blood). A blood sample with a known dilution is placed in a special chamber, where it counts the number of those present in the blood cells. Blood test results are particularly important in the diagnosis of various blood diseases. Any analysis that identify deviations of the patient's blood, for example, with availability of alcohol, drugs or bacteria, are also performed to determine the blood group. See also Counter, leykoformuly.
Fetal blood (Fetal Blood Sampling) - a study, usually performed during childbirth, in which the veins of the head of the fetus's blood sample is taken. Thus, to determine the degree of acidosis of the fetus. Normal fetal blood pH is equal to 7.35 (range of change 7,45-7,25). The lower the pH, the more likely that the fetus is suffering from hypoxia, which requires the earliest possible completion of delivery, if the pH of fetal blood falls below 7.10, then the life of the fetus at risk.
Multivariate Analysis (Multivariate Analysis) - see the correlation.
Analysis of Urine (Urinalysis) - urine, in the process is determined by its physical, chemical and microscopic composition, as well as the presence in it alcohol, drugs, sugar or any other substances, which normally it does not exist.
Semen analysis (Seminal Analysis, Sperm Count) - analysis of a sample of seminal fluid, obtained after five days of abstinence from sexual intercourse to assess the ability of males to fertilize the female egg. Normally, this analysis yields the following results: the volume of ejaculate - 2-6,5 ml; full dilution - within 30 minutes, sperm concentration - 20-200 million sperm per ml of semen (by counting the number of sperm (sperm count) is determine the total number of sperm in ejaculate) sperm motility 60% in the range from 30 minutes to 3 hours (motility less than 20% indicates the presence of sperm abnormalities). To address the question of the presence of any abnormalities in the semen men should have the test results of three different samples of his sperm.
Analogue (Analogue) - a medicinal substance, differ little in their molecular composition from the other related compounds. As an example, here you can give calcipotriol (analog of vitamin D), as well as N-SH equivalents. Analogues of existing drugs used in medical practice, or they are more potent or have less severe side effects. For example, carboplatin is less toxic analogue of cisplatin.

Analogue of mustard gas (mustard gas) Nitrogen (Nitrogen Mustard) - see Mustin.
Analog of luteinizing hormone (Lhrh Analogue) - one of the releasing factor analogs of luteinizing hormone (lutcinizing hormone releasing hormone), which stimulates the release of luteinizing hormone, pituitary gland (see also the gonadotropin-releasing hormone). Analogues of luteinizing hormone are more active than the naturally formed a factor contributing to initially increase the secretion of luteinizing hormone, pituitary gland, because of their impact is the blockade of hormone receptors and the further release of luteinizing hormone is suppressed. Two analogs of luteinizing hormone - goserelin (goserelin) (Zoladex (Zoladex)) and leuprorelin (leuprorelin) (prostap (Prostap)) is widely used to treat prostate cancer. Both are injected under the skin of the abdominal wall with a month interval between their introduction. After a small increase of testosterone in plasma in about ten days, its level drops to as low maintenance, which is observed in humans after castration. See also Buzerelin. Some analogues of luteinizing hormone, prescribed as a powder for inhalation through the nose and used for the treatment of female infertility.
A similar (Analogous) - used to describe the bodies or body parts that perform similar functions in different organisms, despite the fact that in terms of evolutionary development can not be regarded as homogeneous. For comparison: the homologous one.
Anal (Anal) - pertaining to the anus, for example, a crack or a fistula anus.
Medical History (Anamnesis) - Memories associated with the patient's medical history.
Anankastichesky (Apapkastic) - used to describe a number of character traits such as stubbornness, anger, sverhdotoshnost in minute detail, a tendency to undue control over the surrounding objects, a strong concern about their own health, as well as the desire to question the obvious facts. See Changing personality. Obsession.
naplaziya (Anaplasia) - Loss of normal cell properties or differentiation, which can be so strong that it can not happen even to establish the origin of the cells. Anaplasia is common in rapidly growing tumors.
Anasarca (Anasarca) - rapid swelling of the legs, trunk and genitalia due to water retention (edema) is common in congestive heart failure, as well as some forms of renal nedostatochnosti.ANASTEZIYa GENERAL (general anaesthesia) - an artificially induced condition characterized by reversible loss of consciousness and sensitivity to pain, usually achieved by introducing a certain combination of drugs by injection or in the form of gas (the latter are inhaled through a mask). Local anesthesia (local anaesthesia) eliminates the pain in some limited areas of the body; used at small surgical interventions, particularly a number of dental procedures. Local anesthesia is achieved by the introduction of injectable drugs such as lidocaine (the most common in dental practice), these drugs are introduced near the nerve, thus obezbolivaya tissues surrounding it. Local anesthesia may be combined with intravenous sedation. The corresponding injection in the spine causing spinal anesthesia for lower extremity or abdomen. Regional anesthesia (regional anaesthesia), commonly used in anesthesia limb is reached by a circular setting of local anesthetic solution, used in cases when, due to any cause general anesthesia is contraindicated
Anastomosis (Anastomosis) - 1. In anatomy - a connection between two blood vessels without capillary connections between them. See arteriovenous anastomosis. 2. In surgery - an artificial connection between two tubular organs or sites, in particular, between different divisions of the intestine. See also the shunt.
Anastomosis Arteriolovenulyarny (Arteriovenous Anastomosis) - bypass the blood vessel that connects arteriole to venules directly, bypassing the capillaries. Arteriolovenulyarnye anastomoses are located in the skin of the lips, nose, ears, fingertips and toes nail bed, and their muscle wall can be reduced in order to reduce blood flow and expand, facilitating the access of blood to these areas.
Anastomosis Portokavalny (Portacaval Anastomosis, Portacaval Shunt) - 1. Surgical anastomosis between the hepatic portal vein and inferior vena cava. Blood, departing from the abdominal cavity organs, in this case, runs, bypassing the liver. This type of anastomosis used in the treatment of portal hypertension, as well as to prevent the occurrence of severe bleeding from the gastrointestinal tract by reducing the pressure in the veins of the stomach and esophagus. 2. Any natural connection between the branches of portal vein of the liver and inferior vena cava.
Splenorenal shunt (Splenorenal Anas Tomosis) - a method of treatment of portal hypertension by joining the splenic vein to left renal vein. For comparison: Anastomosis portokavalny.
Toxoid (Anatoxin) - formerly known as toxoid. ANATOMY (anatomy) - science of the structure of living organisms. In medicine, in the section of anatomy is studied appearance, structure and size of various parts of the human body. Sometimes as a synonym for the word "anatomy", the term morphology (morphology), but usually it is best to use the term "comparative anatomy" "(comparative anatomy), which refers to the study of differences between various living organisms. See also Cytology, Histology, Physiology. - Anatomical (anatomical). - Anatomist (anatomist).
Pathological Anatomy, Pathology (Pathology) - a branch of medicine dealing with the study of pathological changes in organs and tissues in various diseases in order to gain a better understanding of their nature and their causes. This is achieved by studying samples of blood, urine, feces and diseased tissues taken from the patient or obtained during the autopsy, as well as through the use of radiological and other methods. (See the biopsy.) Clinical pathology (clinical pathology) is engaged in applying knowledge gained in the course of treatment. - A pathologist (pathologist).
Anaphase (Anaphase) - the third stage of mitosis, each cell division during meiosis. During mitosis and anaphase II of meiosis is a division of chromatids and turning them into subsidiaries of the chromosome, then they begin to move apart from each other toward opposite poles of the cell. In anaphase I of meiosis pair of homologous chromosomes are separated from each other. See Separation.
Anaphylaxis (Anaphylaxis) - abnormal reaction to a specific antigen, in which tissue from the body is released histamine, causing a person has a local or general allergic reaction. Allergic reaction (see allergy) is an example of local anaphylaxis. Less, but in more severe cases may develop anaphylactic shock (anaphylactic shock): a very strong common allergic reactions, in which the released from the cells of histamine causes swelling, narrowing of the bronchioles, heart failure, collapse, and in some cases may even be fatal . - Anaphylactic (anaphylactic).
Anaerobic (Anaerobe) - any microorganism, especially a microbe that can live, grow and develop in the absence of free oxygen. Facultative anaerobe (facultative anaerobe) is a microorganism that grows better in the presence of oxygen free environment, but can grow in his absence. Obligate anaerobe (obligate anaerobe) can grow only in the absence of free oxygen in the environment. For comparison: the aerobic, microaerophilic.
Anaerobic (Anaerobic) - 1. Used in reference to anaerobes. 2. Used to describe a type of cellular respiration, in which substances contained in food (usually carbohydrates) can not fully oxidized, since you do not use molecular oxygen. An example of anaerobic respiration is fermentation.
Anga-(Angi-), angiotensin-(Apgio-) - a prefix indicating relationship to the blood or lymphatic vessels. For example: angioektaziya (angiectasis) - an abnormal enlargement of the vessel; angiopathy (angiopathy) - vessel disease; angiotomy (angiotomy) - angiotomy.
Anhydrase (Anhydrase) - an enzyme catalyst for the reaction of removing water from the chemical compound.
Angidremiya (Anhydraemia) - reducing the amount of water, and hence the plasma in the blood.
Anhidrosis (Anhidrosis) - lack of sweating under appropriate conditions and incentives for this, this condition may be accompanied by any disease or be a congenital defect of development.
Angidrozny (Anhidrotic) - 1. Any medicinal substance that reduces the sweating, such as parasimpatoliticheskie funds. 2. Overwhelming process of sweating.
Angiitis (Angiitis), Vasculitis (Vasculitis) - an inflammatory plaque on the walls of small blood vessels. Can occur for various reasons, including because of polyarteritis nodose, acute nephritis, or changes in the composition of blood serum. The main symptoms are: skin rashes, arthritis, purpura and renal failure. In some cases, it is useful to treatment with drugs containing cortisone.
Vincent's disease (Vincent'S Angina) - formerly known as ulcerative gingivitis.
Angina Limfoidnokletochnaya (monocytic) (Glandular / Ever) - an infectious disease caused by a virus, Epstein-Barr virus, infects cervical, axillary and inguinal lymph nodes, occurs predominantly in adolescents and young adults. After an incubation period, which lasts 5-7 days, a person begin to swell and become painful lymph nodes, fever, a headache and sore throat, lost appetite. Sometimes the disease affects the liver, causing hepatitis, may also be enlarged spleen. Diagnosis is based on the detection of the presence of a large number of monocytes in the blood. Complications of the disease are rare, but the disease can last for several weeks before full recovery. Medical name: Infectious mononucleosis (infectious mononucleosis).
Angina Ludwig (Ludwig'S Angina) - significant inflammation of the throat caused by infection in both sides of the mouth floor and leads to significant swelling of the neck. If untreated, Ludwig angina can lead to compression of the airways and the need for tracheostomy.
Angiogenesis (Angiogenesis) - formation of new blood vessels. This process plays an important role in the development of tumors, contributing to their growth.
Angiography (Angiography) - X-ray examination of blood vessels. Contrast to X-ray material is introduced into the artery of the patient, and then make a series of radiographs (see arteriography). Fluorescein angiography (fluorescein angiography) is a widely used method of examination of patients in ophthalmology. Fluorescein sodium is introduced into the ulnar vein, where the flow of blood throughout the body raznovitsya rights. In the patient's eye is directed light of a certain wavelength, causing the contrast dye to glow in the blood vessels of the retina. This allows us to observe the condition of blood vessels in the retina and to photograph them.
Angiodysplasia (Angiodysplasia) - an abnormal accumulation of small blood vessels in the intestinal wall, which in some cases may bleed. Diagnosis is made by colonoscopy or angiography. Angiodysplasia treated by diathermocoagulation or removed surgically.
Angiocardiography (Apgiocardiography) - X-ray examination of the heart cavities after injection into the blood, which is in the heart, X-ray contrast agents. Contrast agent is injected directly into the atria, ventricles, or major blood vessels that are suitable to the heart, with a thin sterile flexible probe (cardiac catheter) (cardiac catheter), which is inserted through a vein or artery of limb (see (cardiac) catheterization). Contrast agent moves to the heart, and simultaneously made a few radiographs using an X-ray film or (cineangiocardiography). Obtained on a film called X-ray image angiokardiogrammoy (angiocardiogram). Angiocardiography is an important method of diagnosis and surgical planning of heart surgery.
Angiokeratoma (Angiokeratoma) - a localized cluster of thin-walled blood vessels, covered with warty layer of skin. Often occurs as an isolated formation in the skin of genital organs in older people, as well as on the skin of the feet and hands of children. This education is not cancerous, but the reasons for its appearance has not yet been established. Angiokeratoma removed surgically. Multiple angiokeratoma affecting internal organs, and human skin - a very rare inherited disease that leads to the death of a patient (Fabry disease (Fabry's disease)).
Angioma (Angioma) - benign tumor that develops from the blood and lymph vessels. Senile angioma (cherry angiomas (or Campbell de Morgan spots)) is a small red spot on the body, appearing in middle age or later. These spots do not cause any concern to man and are a multiple vascular tumors. Arteriovenous angioma of the brain (arteriovenous angioma (or malformation)) is exposed on the surface of a bundle dilated blood vessels, compressing the surface of the brain. This angioma may lead to development in patients with epilepsy, or one of the vessels can burst and lead to Subaru noidaln th in hemorrhage. This type of angiomas usually removed surgically or by stereotactic radiotherapy. The disease may be accompanied by the appearance of purple birthmarks on the face (SterdzhaVebera syndrome). See also Hemangioma, chylangioma.
Angioplasty (Angioplasty) - surgical repair or reconstruction of narrowed or completely blocked arteries (less veins) in the human body. When percutaneous intraluminal angioplasty (percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA; balloon angioplasty) inflated balloon attached to the end of flexible catheter is introduced into the lumen of diseased arteries under X-ray control (see catheterization). Since the balloon is not flat, the space between the walls of the arteries increases tearing her inner shell (thereby decreasing the probability of re-stenosis of the arteries). Most of percutaneous intraluminal angioplasty is performed on the coronary, iliac, femoral and popliteal arteries. See also coronary angioplasty.

Coronary Angioplasty (Coronary Angioplasty) - the operation did not require thoracotomy; narrowed coronary artery atheroma area stretches from the introduction of the air-filled balloon. The operation is performed by cardiac catheterization under X-ray observation (see Angioplasty). The blockage artery is determined in advance by angiocardiography. Not all of the narrowed sections can be expanded using angioplasty. See also vascular shunt bypass.
ngiospazm (Angiospasm) - see Raynaud's disease.
Angiotensin (Angiolensin) - one of the two psptidov: angiotensin I (angiotensin I) or angiotensin II (angiotensin II). Angiotensin I is produced in the liver of a protein (alpha-globulin) formed under the influence of kidney renin, from the bloodstream. When blood circulates through your lungs, by the enzyme angiotensin I is converted to angiotensin II. This peptide causes constriction of blood vessels and stimulates the production of hormones such as vasopressin and aldosterone, which increases blood pressure. See also ACF-inhibitor.
Angioedema (Angio-Oedema), angioedema of Eden (Angioneurotic Oedema) - See Urticaria.
Angstroms (Angstrom) - a unit of length equal to 10.10 m. This unit is not recommended for use in the SI system, but sometimes it is used to denote the wavelength and the interatomic distances, but instead it is preferable to use the nanometer (1 nm = 10 A). A. Designation
Andre, Andre-(Andr-, Andro-) - a prefix indicating relationship to a man or male. For example: androfobiya (androphobia) - morbid fear of men.
Androblastoma (Apagoblastoma) arrhenoblastoma Arrhenoblastoma) - ovarian tumors composed of Sertoli cells, Leydig cells, or both types of these cells. It can produce a male or female sex hormones and cause masculinization; in children is often the cause of early puberty. Up to 30% of these tumors are malignant, and 85% of all known cases of such tumors are treated only by surgery.
Androgen (Androgen) - a representative group of steroid hormones, including testosterone and androsterone, stimulates development of male genitalia and secondary male sexual characteristics (such as beard growth, the development of voice, muscle development). The main source of these hormones are the testicles (their production is stimulated by the presence of cells Leydisha luteinizing hormone), in addition, small amounts are produced by the adrenal cortex and ovaries. In women, excess production of androgens may cause masculinization. Naturally produced in the human body and synthetic androgens are widely used in replacement therapy (for treatment of delayed puberty in adolescents, hypogonadism and impotence associated with inadequate function of the testes), as anabolic agents, as well as for the treatment of breast cancer. Side effects: a delay of sodium and water in the body, enhanced bone growth and masculinization in women. Androgens should not prescribe prostate cancer patients and pregnant women. - Androgenic (androgenic).
Andrology (Andrology) - 1. Branch of medicine dealing with impotence and infertility in men. Semen analysis can reveal the presence of a large number of anomalies in the shape and motility, as well as establish their concentration in the seed, however, to determine the causes that led to the dysfunction of sperm, often need to conduct additional surveys. These include: identification of developmental abnormalities of genital tract (eg, varicocele or obstruction ejaculatory duct), which can be removed surgically, and analysis of semen for the maintenance of sperm antibodies in it and on its ability to interact with cervical mucus, as well as the definition of various hormonal disorders . Modern technologies are used: a computer analysis to quantify motility, which allows accurately set their speed and mobility, biochemical tests to determine the presence of oxygen free radicals that can cause damage in the development of sperm, as well as analysis akrosomnoy reaction, whereby the ability to detect sperm penetrate the protective barrier that surrounds the egg. The development of these methods allowed to identify the causes of infertility in many previously undiagnosed cases, and to choose appropriate treatments to cope with the disease. 2. Study of androgen and androgen relationships of plasma androgen action. Such a study is needed to understand the causes of hirsutism, as well as other diseases associated with abnormal androgen in the body.
Androsterone (Androsterone) - a steroid hormone (see androgens), synthesized and released by the testicles, is necessary for normal sexual development of males.
Aneurysm (Aneurysm) - protrusion of the artery walls, in appearance resembles a balloon. Usually associated with any degenerative changes in the body, caused by infection with syphilis, which affected muscular layer of blood vessels, or may result from congenital weakness of the walls of the aorta. Aortic aneurysm (aortic aneurysm) can develop anywhere in the aorta. Dissecting aneurysm (dissecting aneurysm) usually affects the initial parts of the aorta as a result of degenerative changes of the muscle membrane. This predisposes to rupture the inner lining of the aorta, resulting in the blood permeates through the cross wall and begins to stratify ce muscle membrane. Dissecting aneurysm may burst or squeeze the blood vessels extending from the aorta, and lead to infarction (localized necrosis) of those entities that receive blood from these vessels. The patient complains of severe pain in his chest, wearing a tearing character, and often irradiruyuschuyu in the back or abdomen. In some cases, may help to surgery. Ventricular aneurysm (vcntricular aneurysm) can develop in the wall of the left ventricle after myocardial infarction. In this case, one of the sites of myocardial muscle tissue is replaced by scar, which takes the form ansvrizmaticheskoy bags. As a result, the patient may develop heart failure or thrombosis within the aneurysm, which often leads to embolism. Most cerebral aneurysms are congenital human: there is some danger that they can rupture and cause subarachnoid hemorrhage. A small saccular aneurysms of cerebral arteries, like a berry (berry aneurysms) is most often placed in containers Vilizieva circle. Usually accompanied by the emergence of cross congenital deficiency of the blood vessels, so the aneurysm of this type are often the cause of death from intracranial hemorrhage in young age. Aneurysm of Charcot-Boucharda (Charcot-Bouchard aneurysms) - a small-sized aneurysms, most often occurs on the smallest arteries inside the brain in elderly people suffering from hypertension. There also exists the risk of bursting of the aneurysm, which may result in bleeding in the brain occur. See also arteriovenous aneurysm. - Aneurysmal (aneurysmal).
Aneurine (Aneurine) - see Vitamin B1
Anemia (Anaemia) - decrease in blood erythrocyte count and hemoglobin, which carries out the transport of oxygen and carbon dioxide in blood. The main symptoms are: fatigue, shortness of breath during physical exertion, pale skin and poor resistance to infection. Anemia can be caused by significant blood loss (hemorrhagic anemia (haemorrhagic anaemia)) as a result of accident, injury, etc., and is also associated with chronic hemorrhage, which occurs frequently in patients with gastric ulcer, duodenal ulcer or hemorrhoids. The appearance of iron deficiency anemia (iron-deficiency anemia) associated with iron deficiency in the human body, which is necessary for it to the production of hemoglobin (see sideropenia). Hemolytic anemia (haemolytic anaemias) associated with the pathological destruction of red blood cells - red blood cells that contain hemoglobin. It can develop from exposure to toxic substances, due to an autoimmune reaction, the impact of parasites, especially malaria, or in diseases such as thalassemia, sickle cell anemia, in which disrupted the shape of red blood cells containing hemoglobin, as well as in spherocytosis, which is characterized by anomalous ( spherical) shape of red blood cells. (See also Hemolytic disease of the newborn.} Development of anemia may also be due to decreased production of red blood cells, such as leukemia (which suppress the production of red blood cells in the bone marrow), or in the case of pernicious anemia. Various types of anemia can be classified according to the size of erythrocytes, which are large (macrocytic anemia (macrocytic anaemia)), small (microcytic anemia (microcytic anaemia)) or normal (normotsitarnaya anemia (normocytic anaemia)). (See also macrocytosis, microcytosis.) Treatment of anemia depends on the causes of its development . - anemic (anaemic).
Cooley's anemia (Cooley 'S Anaemia) - see Thalassemia.
Pernicious Anemia (Pernicious Anaemia) - a kind of anemia, the cause of which is a deficiency of vitamin B 12 in the body. This deficiency can be associated either with lack of education in the stomach of a special substance (intrinsic factor) to facilitate the absorption of vitamin B 12 from intestines, or with inadequate intake of this vitamin from food. With pernicious anemia in patients with defective formation of red blood cells, and also notes the presence of megaloblasts in bone marrow. When severe anemia is observed nerve damage (see the degeneration of the spinal cord subacute combined). To treat the disease patient can be an injection of vitamin B 12.
Pernicious Anemia (Pernicious Anaemia) - a kind of anemia, the cause of which is a deficiency of vitamin B 12 in the body. This deficiency can be associated either with lack of education in the stomach of a special substance (intrinsic factor) to facilitate the absorption of vitamin B 12 from intestines, or with inadequate intake of this vitamin from food. With pernicious anemia in patients with defective formation of red blood cells, and also notes the presence of megaloblasts in bone marrow. When severe anemia is observed nerve damage (see the degeneration of the spinal cord subacute combined). To treat the disease patient can be an injection of vitamin B 12.
Anesthesiologist (Anaesthetist) - a doctor that uses anesthetic for the introduction of a patient into unconsciousness before surgery.
Anaesthesia (Anaesthesia) - loss of sensation in one part or the whole body. Anesthesia is a separate part of the body may occur due to trauma or by disease kakogolibo nerve, such as leprosy. However, this term is usually used to describe techniques to reduce or eliminate pain in a patient during surgery. Anesthesia is performed using appropriate drugs (see Analgesics) or by using some other techniques such as acupuncture or hypnosis
Anesthesia Teeth of lower jaw (Inferior Dental Block) - kind of injection for anesthesia of the lower Al veolyarnogo nerve. Typically, this type of anesthesia is performed for various operations on the teeth of the mandible, located on one side of the mouth.
Conduction Anesthesia (Nerve Block) - the method of anesthesia (anesthesia) to certain parts of the body through the blockade of transmission of pain impulses to the centripetal nerves innervating the site. Local aneststik, for example, lignocaine is introduced into the nerve innervating a particular area, then possibly surgery in this area without general anesthesia.
Spinal Anesthesia (Spinal Anaesthesia) - 1. Anesthesia (usually the lower body) by injection of local anesthetic into the space surrounding the spinal cord. There are two types of spinal anesthesia used in surgery: a subarachnoid (subarachnoid (subarachnoid)) and epidural (epidural) anesthesia. When an epidural anesthetic is introduced into the space between the dura and the surrounding walls of the spinal canal through a special short and thick needle with a lateral opening to reduce the likelihood of penetration of a dura mater. Previously used for this purpose is very thin needle to reduce the number resulting in a puncture of the dura mater the cerebrospinal fluid. Both types of anesthesia are fraught with complications, especially subarachnoid anesthesia (to complications arising after its use include: headache, sepsis, and paraplegia). Injection site with subarachnoid spinal anesthesia is often the lumbar spine, in which case the needle is inserted between the spinous processes of vertebrae (at any place between the second and fifth vertebrae). When an epidural anesthetic injection site often are sacral and coccygeal spine. Size anesthetic zone depends on the amount and effectiveness of injected local anesthetic. Dilute solutions of local anesthetic used in the case when you need more numb sensitive, rather than motor nerves. In most cases the injected through a needle thin catheter allows for repeated or prolonged injection of anesthetic solution. Spinal anesthesia is performed in patients whose condition can not subject them to general anesthesia (eg, due to an infection of the chest cavity), with a number of operations in obstetric practice, in order to reduce the number of medications administered during general anesthesia or, if an experienced anesthesiologist in due to any reason not to want to resort to the use of general anesthesia to the patient. 2. Loss of sensation in parts of the body as a result of trauma or any disease spinal cord. Place of loss of sensitivity depends on the location of spinal cord lesions: what it is lower, the smaller the loss of sensitivity in the human body.

Anesthetic (Anaesthetic) - 1. Compound that reduces or completely eliminates the sensitivity, affecting either the entire human body as a whole (total ansstetik (general anaesthetic)), or on its separate area (local anesthetic (local anaesthetic)). General anesthetics used during surgery to suppress the activity of the central nervous system, causing a reversible loss of consciousness. Anesthesia is usually carried out by short-term effects of barbiturates (eg, tiopentona) and is supported by further inhalation anesthetics (eg halothane). Local anesthetics inhibit impulses, passing on sensory nerves to the site at which they were introduced, these include ametokain, bupivacaine and lignocaine. 2. Tool that reduces or completely eliminates the sensitivity.
Aniseikonia (Aniseikonid) - a condition in which we obtain the form and dimensions of the image object differ slightly for each eye.
Anizomeliya (Anisomelia) - the difference in size and shape of the paired limbs (arms or legs) of a person.
Anisometropia (Anisometropia) - a condition where a person observed a different refraction of the eye.
Anisocytosis (Anisocytosis) - a significant difference in the size of red blood cells in the same person. Anisocytosis detected by microscopic examination of blood smear, which can be detected cells of different sizes. Anisocytosis is a common symptom of most diseases of the blood.
Anima (Anima) - (in Jungian psychology) the female archetype peculiar to men.
Animus (Animus) - male archetype peculiar to women.
Anion (Anion) - negatively charged ion, such as bicarbonate ion (NPHS-) or chloride (C1) (see also the electrolyte). Anion gap (anion gap) - the difference between the concentrations of cations (positively charged ions) and anions, determined by the formula: (Na + + K +) - (NPHS-+ C1-). Used to determine unaccounted anions in the blood under different metabolic disorders. Normally, the value of the anion gap is 10-16 mg / dL.
Aniridia (Anindia) - congenital absence of the iris. May arise from the division of a small area on chromosome 11, and accompanied by a predisposition to the development of mesoblastic nephroma in humans.
Anistreplase (Anistreplase) - fibrinolytic drug, which includes a complex of streptokinase and plasminogen. Appointed by injection for the treatment to coronary thrombosis. Possible side effects: local bleeding, slow heartbeat, flushing, lowering of blood pressure, hot flashes, nausea, vomiting and allergic reactions. Trade name: eminaza (Eminase).
Ankyloglossia (Tonguetie) - frequent in young children the disease, characterized by the presence of an unusually short compared with the normal frenum. At very short bridle her dissect, with a slightly shorter bridle, if there is no accompanying forked tongue, no special treatment is needed.
Ankylosis (Ankylosis) - fusion of bones in the joint, or buried his bone (bone ankylosis (bony ankylosis)), or connective fibrous tissue (fibrous ankylosis). Ankylosis is a complication of long flowing inflammatory joint diseases, and he can develop as a result of some chronic infections (eg tuberculosis) or rheumatic (eg, ankylosing spondylitis) zabolevaniy.ANKILOSTOMA I (Ancylostoma, Ankylostoma) - small genus of parasitic nematodes that live in the small intestine Human; widely distributed in Europe, America, Asia and Africa. Its representatives, secured by specific processes to the intestinal wall, sucking out her blood. Man is the basic and the most favorable carrier parasites A. duodenale.
Anovulatory (Anovular, Anovulatory) - is not accompanied by the development and release of female sex cell (ovum) in the ovary, for example, in the case of anovulatory menstruation (anovular menstruation).
Anodontia (Anodontia) - the lack of teeth due to a defect of development. More frequent absence of a few teeth due to underdevelopment (see Gipodontiya).
noksemiya (Anoxaemia) - reducing the oxygen content in the blood. See also anoxia, hypoxemia.
Anomaly (Anomaly) - any deviation from the norm, especially congenital or associated with developmental defects.
Bite anomalies (Talocclusion) - a condition in which the upper and lower teeth properly interlock with each other.
Anomaloscope (Anomaloscope) - a device for determining color differences. With the help of its corresponding configuration is the subject under consideration is represented as a mixture of red and green light in addition to yellow. This addition is performed on a well-lit disk using a microscope, magnifying the output image.
Anomie (Anomia) - 1. Variety of aphasia, in which the patient is not able to give the names of surrounding objects, in spite of the fact that an understanding of their roles, as well as the ability to put words into sentences he had saved. 2. Lack of reverence for the laws and regulations, is a sign of psychopathy and dissocial mental defects in humans.
Anonychia (Anonychia) - congenital absence of one or more nails.
Anorexia (Anorexia) - loss of appetite.
Anorhizm (Anarchism) - congenital absence of one or both testicles.
Anosmia (Anosmia) - anosmia. Often develops as a result of colds, in addition, may be due to fracture the anterior cranial fossa, or due to the swelling of the anterior brain.
Henri (Andi) - abbreviated, are characterized by anomalous development and involution, is used to determine benign breast tumors.
Antabuse (Antabuse) - see disulfiram.
Antagonist (Antagonist) - 1. Muscle, acting opposite (opposing) muscle of the other (called the agonist (agonist) or (prime mover)). Job muscle agonists and antagonists allows a person to move normally. 2. Drug or any other substance, has the opposite other drugs or any chemical process in the human body effect. As an example, you can bring antimetabolites. - The antagonism (antagonism).
Calcium antagonist (Calcium Antagonist) - a medicinal substance, the vast inflow of calcium ions into cardiac myocytes and smooth muscle cells. Helps to reduce power cuts of the heart muscle, decreases the conductivity of the impulses to the heart muscle and causes vasodilatation. For calcium antagonists include: amlodipine, diltiazem, nikardepin, nifedipine and verapamil, which are used to treat angina and reduce high blood pressure.
H2-receptor antagonist (H2-Receptor Antagonist) - see antihistamine.
Antazolin (Antazoline) - an antihistamine drug short-acting. Ingested orally, can reduce symptoms of allergic reactions. Less than other antihistamines, irritates the gastrointestinal tract, resulting in his admission may develop the same characteristic side effects, as in the case of taking other antihistamines: increased drowsiness, dizziness and impaired coordination of movements. Trade name: otrivin-antistin (Otrivine-Antistin).
Antacids (Antacid) - drug, neutralizing hydrochloric acid contained in gastric juice. These antacids like aluminum hydroxide, calcium carbonate, hydroxide of magnetic and sodium bicarbonate are often used to reduce pain and discomfort in the stomach, including gastric ulcer.
Ante-, Pre-(Ante-) - a prefix, indicating that the action was committed to something, to any point in time. For example: prenatal (antenatal) - before birth, pre-lunch (antepranndial) - occur before the meal.
Anteversiya (Anteversioh) - anterior displacement of the body, in particular, the normal anteversion of the uterus.
Antefleksiya (Anteflexion) - anterior tilt of a body. Women have a slight inclination of the uterus anteriorly is considered normal.
Antefleksiya (Anteflexion) - anterior tilt of a body. Women have a slight inclination of the uterus anteriorly is considered normal.
Antibacterial (Antibacterial) - used to describe the antibiotics that suppress the multiplication of various bacteria.
Antibiotic (Antibiotic) - a substance derived from fungi or bacteria that inhibits the growth and reproduction of other microorganisms. Antibiotics are used in the treatment of various infectious diseases caused by microorganisms susceptible to them (usually bacteria or fungi). As a result of their admission in the human body can change the composition of the microflora (eg, intestine, lung, bladder): is the destruction of one or more groups of pathogens causing the disease, and increased growth and proliferation of other resistant microorganisms take antibiotics. This side effect most often occurs as a result of receiving broad-spectrum antibiotics (broadspectrum antibiotics), which can suppress the development of a large number of microorganisms. In some cases, a number of pathogens for destruction are taking antibiotics, can develop resistance to it (for example, at the wrong dosage of medication), in addition, a number of antibiotics can cause the development of allergic reactions in humans. See also the aminoglycosides, antifungal Tools. Antiviral means, cephalosporins, chloramphenicol. Penicillin, quinolones, streptomycin, tetracycline.
Beta-lactam antibiotic (Beta-Lactam Antibiotic) - representative of a group of drugs, which include derivatives of penicillin and cephalosporin. The structure of molecules, all members of this group is chetyrehmembrannoe betalaktamovoe (beta-lactam) ring. Impact of beta-lactam antibiotics on the human body due to their influence on the growth of the cell walls of many bacteria. Bacteria become resistant to these antibiotics by producing beta-lactamase (betalactamases) - specific enzymes (such as penicillinase) that are destroying betalaktamovoee ring.
Antivenin (Antivenene, Antivenin) - immune serum, which consists of antibodies against a number of poisonous

Antigen (Antigen) - any substance that the human body regards as foreign or potentially dangerous and against which begins to produce its own antibodies. Typically, the antigens are the proteins, but a simple matter, even metals, can also become the antigens in conjunction with the human body's own proteins and their modifications. They are called haptens (haptens). - Antigen (antigenic). X substances contained in the venom of snakes, spiders and scorpions.
Australian Antigen (Australia Antigen) - also known as the antigen of hepatitis B, which was first identified in the blood of Australian aborigines. The disease is caused by a virus, which forms with the Australian antigen stable form.
Antigen Kartsinomoembrionalny (Carcinoembryonic Antigen (Cea)) - a protein produced in the body of the fetus and absent in healthy adults. Can be produced with carcinoma, especially carcinoma of the colon, but is less sensitive marker of malignancy. Is an example of onkofetalnogo antigen is used as an indicator of various tumors.
Antigen Onkofetalny (Oncofetal Antigen) - a protein normally produced only fetal tissues, and sometimes his presence in the human body can be found in the case of some of his tumors. An example of such an antigen is carcinoembryonic antigen, which serves as a tumor marker.

Tumor antigen (Tumour-Associated Antigen) - produced by the malignant cells of a protein. Its presence in the blood can be ascertained by a simple blood test, this analysis is used for the diagnosis of malignant melanoma and other types of tumors at an early stage of their development when they are most treatable.
Prostate Specific Antigen (Prostatic Specific Antigen (Psa)) - an enzyme produced by the glandular epithelium of the prostate gland. Excessive amounts of this enzyme Secretary, if there is an increase gland, accompanied by a significant increase in the level of prostate specific antigen in the blood, these symptoms are frequently observed in malignant prostate tumors, although it is still unclear what level of this antigen is a limit of normal. The contents of this antigen is constantly increasing in the development of a malignant tumor of the prostate, thus reducing its speed in the course of treatment is a favorable prognostic sign, suggest correctly chosen method of treatment and its positive effects on the body.
Kell antigens (Kells Antigens) - antigens, that may be present or not present on the surface of red blood cells, forming the basis of available human blood groups. Determination of blood groups is essential for its proper transfusion from one person to another if the need arises.
Antihistamine (Antihistamine) - drug, the inhibitory effect of histamine in the body by blocking two types of histamine receptors: H 1 and H2. Under the action of histamine HI-receptors may lead to allergic reactions such as hay fever, itching and urticaria (skin rash). In these cases, to facilitate the patient's condition are used antihistamines, which block HI-receptors (antagonists HI-receptors (HI-receptor antagonists)). These include: acrivastine, astemizole, and chlorpheniramine azatadin. Many of the HI-receptor antagonists, for example, Cyclizine and promethazine, also have a strong antiemetic effect and used to prevent motion sickness. Common side effects of these drugs is increased drowsiness, so they are sometimes also used as a lightweight sleeping pills. In addition, when taking these medicines may cause some other side effects such as dizziness, blurred vision, tremor, indigestion and poor coordination of movements. The presence of H2-rstseptorov found mainly in the human stomach, where the action begins histamine secretion of gastric juice. H2-antagonists (H2 antagonists), for example, tsimstidin and ranitidine, blocking these receptors, thus reducing gastric acid secretion, these drugs are used to treat stomach ulcers.
Antidepressant (Antidepressant) - a medicinal substance, contributing to a decrease in symptoms of depression. Widely known antidepressants are a group of drugs, based on the chemical structure of which is based on three benzene rings - the so-called tricyclic antidepressants (tricyclic antidepressants); they include, for example, amitriptyline and imipramine. These drugs are used to treat various types of depression. Common side effects: dry mouth, blurred vision, constipation, drowsiness and difficulty with urination. Another type of anti-depressants are MAO inhibitors, but they can lead to more pronounced side effects to antidepressants also are inhibitors of serotonin (5-HT) (eg, fluoxetine, flyuvoksamin).
Antidote (Antidot) - drug, neutralizing toxic effects of poisons or other drug overdose. For example, dimerkaprol is an antidote for arsenic, mercury and other heavy metals.
Antidromic (Antidromic) - used to describe a pulse of opposite direction, passing along the nerve fibers. Extremely rare, but it can happen in circuits, where irritation caused by viruses in the spinal canal, from which impulses are transmitted to other parts of the body for healthy centripetal nerves. Skin area, which suited these nerves (usually a strip of skin on the human body) while covered painful blisters. Antidromic impulses can not overcome the synapses, where they go in one direction only.
Antidromic (Antidromic) - used to describe a pulse of opposite direction, passing along the nerve fibers. Extremely rare, but it can happen in circuits, where irritation caused by viruses in the spinal canal, from which impulses are transmitted to other parts of the body for healthy centripetal nerves. Skin area, which suited these nerves (usually a strip of skin on the human body) while covered painful blisters. Antidromic impulses can not overcome the synapses, where they go in one direction only.
Antiketogen (Antiketogenic) - an agent that prevents the formation of ketones in the body.
Anticoagulant (Anticoagulant) - a substance that prevents blood clotting. Natural anticoagulant heparin directly affects blood clotting, showing its activity inside the human body and on test samples in laboratory studies of blood. Synthetic drugs such as Fenindionum and warfarin, are effective only within the human body, as they affect the phasing blood factors. However, their duration is somewhat higher than in heparin. Anticoagulants used to prevent blood clots, as well as for their destruction in diseases such as thrombosis and embolism. Incorrect dosage of these drugs can cause a patient hemorrhage (bleeding). See also Means fibrinolysis.
Antilevizit British (British Anti-Lewisite (Bal)) - see Dimerkaprol.
Antimetabolite (Antimetabolite) - a medicinal substance, which acts on the metabolic processes within cells by reacting with the corresponding enzymes involved in them. Some of these drugs, such as fluorouracil, methotrexate and mercaptopurine, used to treat malignant diseases. Being antimetabolites, they prevent the growth of cancer cells through interaction with enzymes, which play an important role in the synthesis of nucleic acids. Receiving antimetabolites may be accompanied by pronounced side effects, including disturbances of blood cells and digestive disorders. See also cytotoxic drugs.
Antimutagen (Antimutagen) - a substance that reduces the spontaneous mutation or completely prevents or reverses the action of a mutagen.
Antioxidant (Antioxidant) - a substance that can neutralize free oxygen radicals. Has a high chemical activity and the ability to destroy the atoms and chemical groups produced by various diseases, due to effects on the body of some toxic substances, radiation, nicotine, and other factors. The human body has its own natural antioxidants, but doctors are increasingly interested in the possibility of controlling the growth of cells and their destruction by means of additional antioxidants. The best-known antioxidants are vitamin C (ascorbic acid), vitamin E (tocopherol) and beta carotene. Currently, accumulating more facts, confirming that these substances can reduce the likelihood of developing a number of serious human diseases (cancers, atherosclerosis).
Antistalsis (Antiperistalsis) - backward wave arising in the digestive tract, which moves in the direction of the mouth (ie, up or in the opposite direction compared with the direction of the normal passage of food) (for comparison: peristalsis). Previously it was thought that this causes a person vomiting, but studies have shown that antistalsis a person does not have this process in any way.
Antipyretic (Antipyretic) - a medicinal substance, which can reduce body temperature. Some analgesics like aspirin, paracetamol, mefenamic acid fsnilbutazon and also possess antipyretic activity.
Antiseptic (Antiseptic) - a chemical agent that destroys or inhibits the growth of pathogenic bacteria and other microorganisms, but are nontoxic to the skin and mucous membranes of the human body can be used to disinfect wounds or for internal use in the treatment of infectious diseases of intestine and bladder. By antiseptics include, for example, cetrimide, chlorhexidine, dekvalinium and hexamine.
Antiseptic (Antisepsis) - the destruction of bacteria, fungi, viruses and other pathogens by chemical or physical methods.
Antibody (Antibody) - blood protein synthesized by lymphoid tissue in response to a particular antigen circulates in the blood plasma, binds to the antigen and neutralize it. Produced in response to the antigens, antibodies can be extremely varied, depending on whether there were bacteria in the human body or has developed an allergy to inhaled pollen. Immunity and allergy in humans is largely determined by the functioning of lymphocytes. Antibody formation may also occur after transplantation of tissue or organ due to its rejection. From a chemical point of view of antibody - a globular proteins (immunoglobulins) which are classified according to their structure and performed in the human body functions (see immunoglobulin).
A monoclonal antibody (Monoclonal Antibody) - antibody, an artificially produced from cell clone and therefore contains only one type of immunoglobulin. Monoclonal antibodies are obtained by combining antibody-lymphocytes present in the spleens of mice with mouse myeloma cells. Formed as a result of such a compound hybrid cells begin to multiply rapidly (similar to cancer cells) and produce the same antibody as their "parent" cells.
Antitoxin (Antitoxin) - antibodies produced in humans in response to the toxins produced by pathogenic bacteria or having any other origin.
Antitoxin, antibody Toksinneytralizuyuschee (Immunotoxin) - one representative of a new class of drugs undergoing clinical trials at the possibility of their use for the treatment of leukemia. Antitoxins in combination with monoclonal antibodies that can selectively destroy malignant tumor cells, and highly toxic compounds (eg, ricin) violates the activities of cellular ribosomes, thus inhibiting protein synthesis in cancer cells. To antitoxin has not resulted in damage to the whole cell, it is used in extremely small quantities.
Antifibrinolytic (Antifibrinotytic) - used to describe an agent that suppresses resorption of blood clots (see fibrinolysis). By the antifibrinolytic drug aprotinin and are tranekzamovaya acid.
Anticholinergic (Anticholinergic) - inhibits the action of acetylcholine. By anticholinergic agents include parasimpatoliticheskie drugs.
Anticholinesterase (Anticholinesterase) - any substance, the inhibitory effect of cholinesterase - an enzyme responsible for breaking down the neurotransmitter acetylcholine - and thereby allowing acetylcholine to continue to conduct nerve impulses. To drugs, possessing anticholinesterase activity include: distigmin, neostigmine, pyridostigmine and physostigmine, they are all used to treat severe psevdoparaliticheskoy myasthenia (myasthenia gravis). See also Means parasimpatomimeticheskie.
Antiestrogen (Antioestrogen) - a representative group of drugs, contrary to its action of estrogens. The most important medicines belong to this group is tamoxifen, which counteracts the response to estrogen receptor cells, is used to treat breast cancer, estrogen-dependent. Since these drugs stimulate the production of pituitary gonadotropin, some antiestrogens (eg, clomiphene) are used to enhance or stimulate ovulation in infertility treatment. Side effects that may arise as a result of taking anti-estrogens include: flushing, itching of the vulva, nausea, vomiting, fluid retention in the tissues, and in some cases, vaginal bleeding.
Anthracosis (Anthracosis) - see Pneumoconiosis miners.
Anthracycline (Anthracycline) - any of the 500 antibiotics, synthesized or isolated from bacteria of the family Streptomyces. Doxorubicin is the main representative of this group of compounds, since it has a broad spectrum of activity against various tumors.
Antrop-(Anthrop), Ahtpopo-(Anthropo-) - a prefix indicating relationship to the person. For example: anthropogeny (anthropogenesis) or anthropogenic (anthropogcny) - the origin and development rights; pithecoid (anthropoid) - similar to the man in form and structure similar to human; anthropology (anthropology) - the science of human development as a species.
Anthropozoonosis (Anthropozoonosis) - a disease transmitted from animals to humans, or vice versa, by natural contact. Mostly the disease found in animals, but can develop in humans (eg, leptospirosis, anthrax and rabies).
Anthropometry (Anthropometry) - measurement of the parameters of the human body or its parts. A comparison can be conducted between different people or representatives of different sexes, ages and races to identify any abnormalities in the development of the representatives of one group or another. - Anthropometric (anthropometric).
Antroskopiya (Antroscopy) - examination of the inner surface of the maxillary sinus (see paranasal sinuses) using an endoscope (in another called antroskopom).
Antrostomiya (Antrostotu) - a surgical operation on a permanent or temporary artificial opening in the cave of bones for the drainage of fluid. This operation is sometimes performed in the treatment of infectious diseases of the paranasal sinuses.
Antrektomiya (Antrectotu) - I. Surgical removal of the sinus walls. See Antrostomiya. 2. Surgery in which part of the stomach is removed (the gatekeeper). Most of the secreted hydrochloric acid, pepsin and gastrin hormone released it in the gatekeeper, so this operation is applied (usually in combination with vagotomy) for the treatment of gastric ulcers, re-emerged after vagotomy and resistant to H2-blocking drugs (see antihistamine).
Anuria (Anuria) - lack of urine formation by the kidneys. May develop due to various conditions that lead to persistent fall in blood pressure. Emergency assistance to the patient is required if the lack of education of urine associated with urinary tract blockage that must be eliminated as quickly as possible to save the life of the patient. Anuria is accompanied by increasing uremia, in some cases may require dialysis.
Anus (Anus) - a hole in the lower end of the digestive tract through which fecal removed.

Opened from the anal canal, its activity is controlled by two sphincters: the external (arbitrary) and internal (involuntary). In addition to an act of defecating anus always open. - Anal (anal).
Unperforated anus (Imperfomte Anus), Proktatreziya (Proctatresid) - partial or complete obstruction of the anus: is usually detected at birth and is associated with its immaturity. There are several different types of proktatrezii: anal stenosis associated with underdevelopment of the anus (developmental anal stenosis), the presence of an anal membrane (persistent anal membrane) and imperforate anus (covered anus) (as a result of adhesions genitalnk folds). If the anal canal is not sufficiently developed, the rectum has no outlet and ends of the muscles of the perineum. In most cases proktatreziya can be cured by simple surgery. If the defect is too complex, then in the colon can be done in a temporary opening (colostomy see), followed by reconstruction of the rectum and anus.
Anencephaly (Apepsephaly) - complete or partial absence of the bones of the skull and brain. A defect in utero, in which the unborn child can not live more than a few hours. Often accompanied by other developmental defects of the nervous system, such as spina bifida. Tests for the presence of anencephaly in a child may be held the woman in the early stages of pregnancy, if someone from the family members have had previous encounter with the disease (see amniocentesis, alpha-fetoprotein).
Anergiya (Anergy) - 1. Lack of response to specific antigen or allergen. 2. Lack of energy. - Anergichiy (anergic).
Aneuploidiya (Aneuploidy) - a condition in which the number of chromosomes in the cell is not a multiple of the normal basic (haploid) set. See monosomy, trisomy. For comparison: Euploidiya. - Aneuploidny (aneuploid).

Aorta (Aorta, Multiplier. Aortae Or Aortas) - the main artery in the human body from which depart the rest of the artery. It starts from the left ventricle of the heart (aortic bulb, then - ascending aorta (ascending aorta)) surrounds its top (see the aortic arch) and descends to the spinal (descending aorta (descending aorta)). On this path from the aorta leaves a lot of large and small branches. At level IV of the lumbar vertebra is divided into two common iliac arteries - the right and left. Plot descending aorta from the aortic arch to the diaphragm is called the thoracic aorta (thoracic aorta), and the section, located below the diaphragm - abdominal aorta (abdominal aorta). - Aortic (aortic).
Aortitis (Aortitis) - inflammation of the aorta that develops most often as a late complication of syphilis. Mainly affected by aortitis ascending aorta, resulting in the patient may form an aneurysm or obstruction of the coronary vessels. Due to pressure on adjacent organs and tissues, or due to insufficient blood supply of the heart patient may be concerned about pain in his chest. The examination is often detected aortic regurgitation. Syphilis can be treated successfully with penicillin, but in the case of an aortic aneurysm or valvular destruction, to save the life of the patient may need surgery.
Aortography (Aortography) - X-ray examination of the aorta. In the aorta introduce radiopaque substance, and then make a series of radiographs (see angiocardiography). Aortography is performed to determine the extent of the disease, as well as localization of the patient area (eg, atheromatous arterial occlusion or aneurysm), the survey can provide substantial help in planning surgical treatment. APERIENT (aperient)-laxative.
Apikektomiya (Apicectomy) - (dentistry), surgical removal of the root apex. Usually accompanied by installation of a seal at the root end of the tooth is removed, if the root canal treatment of dental pulp has not led to success and can not be extended.
Apyrexy (Apyrexia) - absence of fever.
Aplasia (Aplasia) - full or partial underdevelopment of an organ or tissue. See also agenesis. - Aplastic (aplastic).
Thymic aplasia (Thymic Aplasia) - hypoplasia of the thymus. Earlier this state was considered the cause of human propensity to giperchuvstvitslnym reactions and infections that could lead to his death in childhood (see Status of lymphatic), currently the concept is rejected.
Apneuz (Apneusis) - abnormal breathing with prolonged inhalation and shortened breath. Observed if the inhibitory impulses into force for any reason do not reach the respiratory center in the brain.
Apnea (Apnoea) - asphyxia, the temporary cessation of breathing due to various reasons. Apnea are common in newborn babies. They should be taken very seriously, although they are not always associated with any serious illness in the child. See also the apnea during sleep. - Apnoetichesky (apnoeic)
Apnea related to violation of the airway during sleep (Obstructive Sleep Apnoea) - a life-threatening condition in which the disrupted airway and stop the flow of air into the lungs. The main manifestations of such disorders are snoring and a decrease in oxygen concentration in the blood that can cause the development of human heart failure. In children, this type of apnea usually occurs due to enlarged adenoids and tonsils, so eliminating it is necessary to remove the overgrown education. In adults, sleep apnea may also be associated with enlarged tonsils, but more often it occurs because of any other disease or throat due to the presence of human obesity. To eliminate the apnea need to reduce weight and facilitate nighttime breathing with the ventilator, and in some cases, you may need to perform tonsillectomy, увулопалатофарингопластики or tracheostomy.

Apnea-monitoring (Apnoea Monitor) - electronic alarm activated by a sensor tracking the breath of the child. Can be used at home to monitor the children for whom a high probability "of death in the cradle."
Apocrine (Apocrine) - 1. Used to describe the sweat glands, located exclusively in the hairy parts of the body, especially in the armpits and groin. These glands develop from hair follicles after puberty rights. A strong smell of sweat is associated with the interaction of bacteria with the sweat produced by apocrine glands. For comparison: ekkrinny. 2. Used to describe the glands, in which the process of secretion is accompanied by destruction of the apical part of cells. See Secretion.
Apomorphine (Apomorphine) - emetic causing this response in the body by direct exposure to the vomiting center in the brain. Subcutaneously, acts within minutes. Is used to treat poisoning nekorrozivnymi substances ingested. In the case of low-dose (not enough to cause a person vomiting) apomorphine has sedative, hypnotic and expectorant.
Aponeurosis (Aponeurosis) - a thin but strong enough petals decorated the dense fibrous connective tissue that replaces the flat leaf-like tendons in the muscles that are attached to bones at a considerable distance (eg, aponeurosis of external oblique abdominal muscles). - Aponevrotnchesky (aponeurotic).
Apoplexy (Apoplexy) - See Shock.
Apotreptichesky (Arotreptic) - used to describe a precautionary response in the patient's compulsive neurosis.
Apophysis (Apophysis) - 1. Outgrowth. 2. Protrusion of any part or any organ of the human body, such as the brain: the pineal gland (apophysis cerebri).
Apparatus "heart-lung" "(Heart-Lung Machine) - the unit that replaces the function of the heart and lungs during heart surgery. It includes a pump that supports blood circulation, and a special device to her oxygen. Blood is taken from the body through a special tube, introduced into the upper and lower hollow vein, and oxygenated blood pressure returned to one of the major arteries (eg femoral artery). In this case, the surgeon may repair or replace the affected valves or conduct any other operation on the heart and major blood vessels.
Golgi apparatus (Golgi Apparatus) - collection of membrane tanks, bubble tubes, pouches in the cell, usually connected to the endoplasmic reticulum. It collected, packaged and subsequently transported proteins produced in the endoplasmic reticulum. (The synthesized products are derived from the cells using Golgi complex elements. Moreover, they are synthesized polysaccharides and the formation of protein-carbohydrate complexes - Ed.) Golgi apparatus is well developed in cells secreting various substances (for example, in the cells of the pancreas, which produces digestive enzymes).
Urinary apparatus (Urinogenital, Urogenital) - a set of urinary and genital organs of the unity of origin.
Orthopedic apparatus (Orthosis) - The manufactured individually surgical device, which provides fixation of an unstable joint or joints. An example of such a device is a corset pozvonochnika.APPARAT Lacrimal (lacrimal apparatus) - entities that produce and remove fluid from the eye (see fig.). Lacrimal gland (lacrimal gland) carries the secretion of tears. Tear washes the front of the eyeball flowing in the lacrimal lake, located in the medial corner of the eye, and tear through the points (puncta) - small holes located in the inner corner of the eye - is given in two lacrimal canaliculus (lacrimal canaliculi), which flow into the lacrimal sac (lacrimal sac), passing in nososlszny duct, where a tear falls into the nasal cavity.

Hearing aids (Hearing Aid) - an electronic device that allows a deaf person to distinguish the sounds, the auditory apparatus includes a miniature sound receiver, amplifier and insert either a hearing aid or a special vibrator to transmit the amplified audio signal into the hearing organ. The liner is a hearing aid is inserted directly into the ear canal; vibrator (used in the case of conductive deafness) enhances behind the ear and transmit signals through the bone directly into the inner ear. Powered hearing aid is provided from an electric battery, and the whole design a hearing aid is fairly petite, so it can be seamlessly consolidate behind the ear or inside the ear prohoda.APPENDIKOSTOMIYa (arpendicostomy) - a surgical procedure in which the appendix - the appendix - out through the anterior abdominal the wall and opened to drain or reduce pressure in the intestine. At present, this operation is rare, as is preferred ileostomy or colostomy.
Appendix (Appendix, Vermiform Appendix) - a short and slender blind process of 7-10 cm in length, located at the end of the cecum (the initial division of the colon). Its function in the human body, as well as the reasons for its inflammation and infection, especially among young people, are still unknown (see Appendicitis). According to modern views of the appendix, in the wall of which is the set of lymphoid nodules, is one of the organs of the immune system.
Appendicular (Arpendicular) - 1. Pertaining to the appendix (appendix), or working on it. 2. Pertaining to the extremities: an extension skeleton (appendicular skeleton) includes the bones of the limbs.
Appendicitis (Appendicitis) - inflammation of the appendix appendix. Acute appendicitis (acute appendicitis), which became very popular in the twentieth century, most often occurs in young people. The main symptom is abdominal pain, initially epigastric, and later in the right iliac region, above the place where the appendix. When an unusual arrangement of the appendix in the abdominal pain may be localized in other places, which makes the diagnosis. Sometimes there is vomiting, diarrhea and mild fever. If you do not conduct timely surgery, appendicitis can lead to an abscess or a general, diffuse peritonitis in humans. Similar symptoms of appendicitis are also observed in mesenteric lymphadenitis, acute ileite (see Crohn's disease), pyelonephritis and pneumonia. Chronic appendicitis (chronic appendicitis) has been extremely popular diagnosis of 20-50 years ago, when the patient's constant complaints of pain in the lower abdomen. However, such cases are rare and of an appendectomy is not required.

Appendectomy (Arrepdicectomy) - surgical removal of the appendix - the appendix. See also the appendix.
Apperception (Apperception) - (in psychology), a condition in which the characteristics of the object, the environment, etc. perceived by the person taking into account the existing expertise and experience.
Appestat (Appestat) - center of the brain, controlling the amount of food consumed. Appetite suppressants are likely to reduce hunger by changing the chemical characteristics of the center.
Applicator (Applicator) - any device, imposed on the individual parts of the body for treatment.
Apposition (Apposition) - the state of the two structures, such as two parts of the body where they are in close contact. For example, the fingers are in apposition when the fist is compressed, and forever - when the eyes are closed.
Apraxia (Apraxia), dyspraxia (Dyspraxia) - failure to properly implement purposeful movements. Most likely associated with disease of the cerebral cortex, in which a man can not organize their movements, not with his awkwardness as a result of muscle weakness, numbness or disease of the cerebellum. Often associated with the disease parietal lobes of the brain, and in some cases and the disease it shares the front.
Aprosexia (Aprosexia) - inability to fix attention on any subject because of poor eyesight, hearing or mental retardation.
Aproktiya (Aproctia) - congenital absence of the anus or holes in it. See unperforated anus.
Aprotinin (Aprotinin) - a medicinal substance that prevents the absorption of blood clots (see fibrinolysis) by blocking the action of plasmin (antifibrinolitichsskoe tool (antifibrinolytic drag)). Assigned to injections to stop severe bleeding, which occur in some forms of cancer, as well as in the treatment of fibrinoliticheskimi drugs. Trade name: trazilol (Trasylol).
Pharmacy (Dispensary) - a place where pharmacists on prescription drugs are manufactured and issued by then sick. Pharmacies are often found in hospitals, as a part of them.
Pharmacy (Pharmacy) - premises for sale of drugs.
Apud-cells - the cells responsible for the consumption proaminov during metabolism and involved in the decarboxylation. Especially a lot of them in the mucosa of the gastrointestinal tract and pancreas, where they are capable of forming a large number of ieyroaminov and oligopeptides having a hormonal action, often in another they are called diffuse endocrine system (diffuse endocrine system).
Apudoma (Apudoma) - a tumor composed of APUD-cells, the symptoms of its manifestations associated with excessive output of hormones and other peptides produced by these cells. Argentaffinoma is a prime example of such tumors, but there are also some others of their species (eg, gastrinoma and vipoma).
Arahneydizm, Arahnidizm (Arachnidism) - poisoning that develops in humans by the bite of a spider. Toxins are less poisonous spiders cause only pain, redness and swelling at the site of the bite. Toxins are also more poisonous spiders such as black widow (Lactrodectus mactans), can cause muscle pain, cramps, nausea and paralysis of the person.
Arachnodactyly (Arachnodactyly) - abnormally long and thin fingers. This state is usually accompanied by the presence of the patient being overweight, as well as congenital heart disease and eye, as in Marfan syndrome.
Arachnoiditis (Arachnoiditis) - an inflammatory process that causes thickening and scarring (fibrosis), arachnoid of spinal cord. As a result of infringement of nerve endings in the patient may develop weakness, pain and numbness in the affected area. The disease is usually associated with infection of the meninges, in addition, can result from surgery or in response to the use of oil pigments, previously used during myelography. Currently, when performing myelography using water-soluble dyes, which excludes the possibility of arachnoiditis as a reaction to myelography.
Arboviruses (Arbovirus) - a representative group of RNA viruses that can spread from animals to humans through insects (such as arthropods, hence the name of these viruses: arthropod-borne viruses (arthropodbome viruses)) and cause the development of diseases such as encephalitis, dengue fever and yellow fever.
Argasovye (Argasidae) - see the mites.
Argentaffinoma (Argentaffinoma), carcinoid (Carcinoid) - swelling of the intestinal glands containing argentaffinnye cells (see APUDoma). Argentaffinoma usually develops in the upper part of the appendix, as it often occurs in the small intestine. In addition, argentaffinoma may occur in the rectum and other parts of the digestive tract and the bronchial tree (bronchial carcinoid adenoma (bronchial carcinoid adenoma)). Argentaffinoma sometimes produces a 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin), prostaglandins, as well as some other physiologically active substances inactivating the liver. If the tumor extends to the liver, the excess amount of these substances into the systemic circulation, resulting in a person develops carcinoid syndrome (carcinoid syndrome). Its main manifestations - headache, flushing, diarrhea, seizures, resembling the nature of asthma, and in some cases, defeat the right half of the heart.
Arginine (Arginine) - an amino acid that plays an important role in the formation of urea in the liver.
Argyria (Argyria) - silvery skin pigmentation, appearing either as a result of industrial exposure of silver salt, or because of their introduction into the human body. Develops slowly, especially pronounced in those areas of the skin, which reside in the light.
Areola (Areola) - 1. Round brown or pink area surrounding the nipple. 2. Of the iris, which is located around the pupil of the eye. 3. Small pigmented section of the cloth. - Areolar (areolar).
Ariboflavinoz (Ariboflavinosis) - a series of symptoms that occur with a deficit of riboflavin (vitamin B2) in the human body. These include: inflammation of the tongue and lips, and painful ulcers in the mouth corners.
Aritenoidektomiya (Arytenoidectomy) - surgical removal of the arytenoid cartilage of the larynx for the treatment of paralysis of the vocal cords.
Fibrillation (Arrhythmia) - any deviation from normal heart rhythm (sinus rhythm). Natural driver heart rate (sine-prsdserdny node), located in the wall of the right atrium under the influence of the autonomic nervous system controls the speed and rhythm of heartbeats. It generates electrical impulses coming into the atrium and ventricle by means of special cells of cardiac conduction system, and thus makes them okay to decline. Arrhythmia is caused by violation of the generation or conduction of these impulses and may be either intermittent or constant. For arrhythmia include heart rhythm abnormalities: ectopic beat (extrasystole), ectopic tachycardia, atrial fibrillation and heart block (which is often accompanied by slower heart rate). The main manifestations of arrhythmias include: heart palpitations, shortness of breath and chest pain. In more severe cases may develop a syndrome Adams-Stokes or cardiac arrest occur. Arrhythmia in humans may develop as a result of a number of heart disease, and for no apparent reason.
Sinus Arrhythmia (Sinus Arrhythmia) - a normal change in the rate of heart contractions, which increases slightly during inspiration and decreases during exhalation. Sinus arrhythmia often occurs in healthy people.

The coronary arteries, coronary arteries (Coronary Arteries) - arteries that supply blood to the heart muscle. The right and left coronary arteries (right and left coronary arteries) are moving away from bulbs and give the branch supplying the heart. See coronary angioplasty. Vascular shunt bypass
Iliac artery (Iliac Arteries) - arteries that supply blood of lower limbs and pelvis. Abdominal aorta divides (aortic bifurcation) on the right and left common iliac arteries (common iliac arteries). Each of them is divided into outer (external iliac artery) and smaller internal iliac artery (internal iliac artery).
Arteritis (Arteritis) - inflammation of the arteries. May result from connective tissue disease or due to past infection, such as syphilis. The affected blood vessels swell, become painful, in some cases can occur even to corking. Temporal (temporal) or cranial arteritis (giant-cell arteritis) usually develops in older people and affects the arteries of the skull. Patients complain of severe headache and ophthalmic arteries due to thrombosis may occur blindness. The disease can be successfully treated with drugs, which include the kortikozon.
Arterio-(Arter-, Arteri-, Arterio-) - a prefix indicating relationship to the artery. For example: arteriopathy (arteriopathy) - a disease that affects arteries; arteriorafiya (arteriorrhaphy) - stitches on the artery, arteriovenous (arteriovenous) - relating to the arteries and veins.
Arteriogram (Arteriogram) - registration vibrations produced by arterial pulse. Can be done directly with the arterial puncture needle with which records changes in blood pressure in the arteries, or indirectly, by the sensor to be placed on the skin over the artery. The recorded vibrations can be recorded on paper tape or typed on the screen (oscilloscope). In a number of diseases of the heart pulse wave has a characteristic shape for them.
Arteriography (Arteriography) - X-rays of the artery, based on the introduction of radiopaque substance. Artsriografiya used primarily to identify the location and size of atheroma, mainly in the coronary arteries (coronary angiography (coronary angiography)), and arteries of the legs (femoral angiography (femoral angiography)), as well as to clarify the location of the aneurysm within the skull or detection of cerebral tumors (angiography carotid artery (carotid artery angiography) angiography and vertebral artery (vertebral artery angiography)). See also MUGA-scan.
Arteriography Mnogovhodnaya (Multiple-Gated Arteriography), Muga-Scan (Muga Scan) - a method of studying the function of the left ventricle of the heart, as well as the movements of the walls of the heart by introducing into it enriched radioactive element tehnstsiem-99 red blood cells the patient, and they allow you to see at some point in the heart cycle accumulation of blood within the heart. This study is conducted using an electrocardiogram, a gamma camera and computer.
Arterioles (Arteriole) - the most delicate muscular artery with a diameter less than 300 microns, which departs from the set of the smallest capillaries. Thanks to the contraction and expansion of the lumen under the influence of the autonomic nervous system, the arterioles are the primary regulators of blood flow and blood pressure in humans.
Arteriolitis (Arteriolitis) - inflammation of the arterioles (small arteries) may be complicated by arterial hypertension. As a result of necrotizing arteriolita (necrotizing arteriolitis) the patient may develop kidney failure. If it affects the arterioles of the lungs in man observed pulmonary hypertension.
Arterioplasty (Arterioplasty) - surgical reconstruction of the artery is used, for example, for the treatment of aneurysms.

Arteriosclerosis (Arteriosclerosis) - a generic term used to describe the lesions of arteries. Often it is used as a synonym for atherosclerosis (see atheroma). Can be used to describe the degeneration Menkeberga (Monckeberg's degeneration), at which age-calcium starts to lay in the walls of the arteries, as well as arteriolosclerosis (arteriolosclerosis), when the walls of arterioles with age or due to the development of human hypertension begin thinning.
Arteriotomiya (Arteriotomy) - cut the artery walls or puncture. Often performed during diagnostic studies for arteriography or cardiac catheterization. Sometimes also used to remove embolic (see embolectomy).
Arteriectomy (Arteriectomy) - surgical excision of the artery or cross pieces. Can be performed during the diagnostic procedure (for example, when taking an arterial biopsy for the diagnosis arteritis), or the replacement of clogged arteries, the arteries when the lesion is replaced with a synthetic graft.
Artery (Artery) - a blood vessel that carries blood from the heart. All arteries, except for lung, carry oxygen-rich blood. Arterial wall consists of inner, middle and outer shells, the average is rich in smooth muscle cells (see Fig.) That can shrink or relax under the influence of the autonomic nervous system. See also the aorta, arterioles.
Basilar artery (Basilar Artery) - an artery at the base of the brain (in the basilar sulcus of the brain) is formed by connecting the two vertebral arteries. It runs from the lower to the upper edge of the pons, and then divided into two posterior cerebral arteries.
Femoral artery (Femoral Artery) - artery, which is a continuation of the external iliac artery and passes under the inguinal ligament. Located superficially, going down in front of the femoral groove, then through the resulting channel is directed to the back of the thigh (ed.). Two-thirds of the way down it passes over the back of the thigh, passing in the popliteal fossa in the popliteal artery (popliteal artery).
Innominate artery (Innominate Artery), Schitosheyny trunk, brachiocephalic trunk (Brachiocephalic Arter - Short artery being the first branch of the aortic arch extending from her right up, and ends at the base of the neck near the right sternum-clavicle joint. At this point it is split to the right common carotid and subclavian arteries.
Innominate artery (Innominate Artery), Schitosheyny trunk, brachiocephalic trunk (Brachiocephalic Arter - Short artery being the first branch of the aortic arch extending from her right up, and ends at the base of the neck near the right sternum-clavicle joint. At this point it is split to the right common carotid and subclavian arteries.
Superficial Temporal Artery (Temporal Artery) - end a branch of the external carotid arteries that supply blood to the skin of the temporal, frontal and parietal regions, as well as the circular muscle of the eye.
Pulmonary artery, pulmonary trunk (Pulmonary Artery) - the main artery of the pulmonary circulation, in which the blood comes from the heart to the lungs for oxygenation it: this is the only artery through which flows deoksigenizirovannaya (oxygen depleted) blood (deoxygenated blood). The pulmonary artery exits the right ventricle, and goes up in front of the aorta, approximately 5 cm, and then under the aortic arch is divided into right and left pulmonary arteries, each of which goes to one of the lungs. Inside the lungs, each pulmonary artery, in turn, is divided into equity, segmental, etc. respectively dividing the bronchi, which end in the capillaries of interalveolar walls. See also the small circle of blood circulation.
Second segment artery (Ulnar Artery) - a branch of the brachial artery, which departs from the bore in the ulnar fovea and passes in the ulnar groove to the wrist joint, passes to the palm, which forms the superficial palmar arch, anastomoziruya with superficial palmar branch of radial artery. Supply blood to the joints, skin and muscles of the forearm and hand.
Radial artery (Radial Artery) - artery, starting from the shoulder to the elbow fossa and passing in the radial groove parallel bones of the same name down the forearm to the styloid process of radius. Subsequently, the artery passes to the rear of the brush, through a gap in the interosseous hand. Its terminal division forms a deep palmar arch, anastomoziruya with deep palmar branch of ulnar artery (ed.).
Artery Shoulder (Brachial Artery) - continuation of the axillary artery begins at the lower edge of the pectoralis major muscle, it should be down in the medial sulcus of the shoulder to the cubital fossa, which is divided into ulnar and radial arteries.
Subclavian artery (Subclavian Artery) - a major artery supplying blood, neck and arm. Right subclavian artery is a branch of brachiocephalic trunk, left subclavian artery departs from the aortic arch.
Renal Artery (Renal Artery) - pair of large arteries extending from abdominal aorta and supply blood to the kidney. Each renal artery on its way to the kidney is divided into anterior and posterior branches.
Carotid artery (Carotid Artery) - one of the two main arteries that supply blood to the head, passes close to the windpipe and esophagus up to the head and neck, forehead century. The left-common carotid artery departs from the aortic arch, right - from the brachiocephalic trunk (innominate artery). At the level of the upper edge of thyroid cartilage (Adam's apple), each of which divides into two branches: the internal carotid arteries supplying blood, brain, forehead, nose, eyes and inner ear, and external carotid artery that supply blood to the outer side of the head and neck human walls and bodies of the mouth and nose.
Artery vitreous Eyes (Hyaloid Artery) - artery of the fetus, passing in the vitreous channel supply blood to the eye and its lens.
Testicular artery (Spermatic Artery) - Steam artery extending from the abdominal aorta and passes down to supply blood to the egg, its appendage and the vas deferens.
Artifact (Artifact, Artefact) - (microscopy) structure observed in the tissues under a microscope, while in living tissue is absent. Artifacts that arise due to inadequate fixation or improper placement of the tissue under a microscope, may give a false impression of the existence of any diseases or abnormalities, whereas in fact it is absent.
Articulator (Articulator) - (dentistry) a device for comparing the upper and lower jaw (usually at the most dense of closing the teeth), used in the manufacture of dentures. Some articulators can play the chewing motion. Used in the manufacture of dental crowns, bridges and dentures.
Articulation (Articulation) - 1. In anatomy - a point or a type of connection of two bones. See the joint. 2. Joint activities of the vocal cords, tongue, lips and other organs for articulate speech.
Arthralgia (Arthralgia) - pain in joints without swelling or any other symptoms of arthritis. For comparison: Arthritis.
Arthritis (Arthritis) - inflammation of one or more joints where the joints swell, become hot to the touch, the skin over them is red, a person experiences in their pain and restriction of movement. To the development of arthritis can cause more than 200 different diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, gout, tuberculosis, and many others. Diagnosis is based on visual inspection of the affected joints, X-ray examination, blood tests and studies of synovial fluid obtained by aspiration from the patient's joint. Monoartrit (monoarthritis) is an inflammation of a joint oligoarthritis (oligoarthritis or pauciarthritis) - inflammation of multiple joints (but no more than four), and polyarthritis (polyarthritis) - multiple joint inflammation, which appears simultaneously or with a certain time interval. Any disease that affects the synovial membrane or which leads to degenerative changes in articular cartilage, can cause arthritis. Treatment of arthritis depends on the cause of the disease, but to relieve inflammation, reduce pain and swelling of joints often used aspirin or other similar to it in its action analgesics. See also psoriatic arthritis, hemarthrosis, Piartroz, hydrarthrosis. - Arthritic, Gouty (arthritic).
Psoriatic arthritis (Psoriatic Arthritis) - Arthritis, within which is accompanied by psoriasis. This type of arthritis occurs in only a small number of patients with psoriasis, but it can deliver patients with severe pain. It often affects the small joints, such as interphalangeal joints of the fingers and toes, the spine (spondylitis) and sacroiliac joints (sacroiliac disease).

Rheumatoid arthritis (Rheumatoid Arthritis) - a kind of arthritis, which occupies the second place on the frequency of its occurrence among the other rheumatic diseases (after osteoarthritis). Usually the disease affects the joints of fingers, wrists, feet and ankles, and in some cases later disease also extends to the hip, shoulder and knee joints, usually symmetrically affected joints, and the manifestations of the disease may have a very different intensities. Diagnosis of disease based on an analysis of blood serum which many patients found the presence of rheumatoid factor (rhcumatoid factor) (see autoimmune disease), as well as by X-ray examination, which allows to reveal the characteristic changes (rheumatoid erosion (rheumatoid erosions)) of the affected joints . There are many ways to treat this disease, which are based on the use of anti-inflammatory analgesics, contributing to a decrease in symptoms of the disease, and if necessary the replacement of the joints of patients with their dentures (see Prosthetic hip joint). Sometimes the disease can occur spontaneously, but often cross relapses alternating with periods of remission or after a while it starts to noticeably progressing.
Arthrography (Arthrography) - X-rays of joints. Radiopaque substance (air or liquid contrast for x-rays) is inserted into the joint cavity, after which X-rays.
Arthrodesis (Arthrodesis) - a surgical procedure is to fix the bones in the joints and leads to restriction of movement of the joint. Satisfied if the joint is extremely painful, unstable, severely deformed or struck chronic infectious disease, and if the patient because of any reason not possible or desirable to produce arthroplasty.
Arthroplasty (Arthroplasty) - surgical repair diseased joint. To prevent adhesions of the joint surfaces of bones after the operation between them leaves a big gap (gap arthroplasty (gap arthroplasty)) or inserted into the plate of the artificial material (interpozitsionnaya arthroplasty (interposition arthroplasty)); in addition, one or both of the end of the bone may be replaced by a prosthesis made of metal or plastic (replacement arthroplasty (replacement arthroplasty)).
Arthroscope (Arthroscope) - a device inserted into the joint cavity for its inspection before a biopsy or carrying out operations in the joint.
Arthrotomy (Arthrotomy) - a surgical incision joint capsule to survey its contents and aspiration of pus (if present).
Arthrectomy (Arthrectomy) - surgical removal of the joint. Usually removed very painful joint, which has ceased to perform its function, for example, as a result of an incurable infectious lesions.
Arche-(Arch-, Arche-, Archo-), Archi-(Archi-) - prefix denoting: primary, primitive, inherited. For example: arhinefron (archincphron) - primary embryonic kidney.
Archetype (Archetype) - (in Jungian psychology) inherited the idea, mood or thought, it presupposes that a man unconscious and based on the experience of all mankind, not just the experience of the person.
Arhipallium (Archipalhum) - the hippocampus - gyrus, located on the medial surface of the temporal lobe. This term is now practically out of use.
Arhenteron (Archenteron) - cavity formed in the earliest stages of embryo development as a result of gastrulation (see gastrula). The man arhenteron forms a tubular cavity or arhenterichesky channel (archenteric canal), connecting amniotichssky bag with the yolk sac. Arhenterichesky (archenteric).
Asbestosis (Asbestosis) - lung disease - a kind of pneumoconiosis - caused by asbestos dust, ingested when working with asbestos. In these patients (especially smokers) likely to develop lung cancer. See also Mesothelioma.
Asepsis (Asepsis) - complete absence of bacteria, fungi, viruses or other pathogens. Asepsis is an ideal condition to perform surgical operations is achieved through sterilization.
Asymptomatic (Asymptomatic) - show no symptoms in the presence or absence of disease in real life.
Asindez (Asyndesis) - violation of intellectual abilities, which interferes with the normal association of concepts, so that the person's thoughts and his speech becomes fragmented. Is one of the symptoms of schizophrenia, dementia or confusion.

Asynclitism (Asynclitism) - the slope of the skull of the fetus to the shoulder, which leads to the fact that the top of his skull or close to the sacrum (anterior asynclitism (anterior asynclitism), or asynclitism Negsle (Naegelc's obliquity)), or to the pubic bone (posterior asynclitism (posterior asynclitism ) or asynclitism Littsmanna (Litzmann's obliquity)). In this case, the head of the fetus can not freely pass through the mother's pelvis during birth.
Asystole (Asystole) - a condition in which the heart stops beating, accompanied by the absence of the corresponding waves on the electrocardiogram. Clinical manifestations, causes and treatment are similar to those used in cardiac arrest.
Ascariasis (Ascariasis) - a disease caused by infestation of parasitic worms in humans - Ascaris (Ascaris lumbricoides). Adult ascarids, living in the gut, can cause human abdominal pain, vomiting, constipation, diarrhea, appendicitis, and even peritonitis, large accumulations of ascarids may lead to intestinal obstruction. Hit Migratory larvae of Ascaris in the lungs often causes pneumonia. Particularly common roundworm in areas with poor sanitary conditions, are derived from the human body with piperazine.
Roundworm (Ascaris) - genus of parasitic nematodes in the human body. A. lumbricoides, widespread throughout the world ascaris, is the largest representative of the nematodes of the species inhabiting the human intestine - the length of an adult female is 35 cm eggs laid by Ascaris in the feces can be transmitted from person to person through contaminated water or food. Ascarid larvae appear in the gut, and then performs a complicated migration through the hepatic portal vein, liver, heart, lungs, trachea, larynx and pharynx before back into the intestine where they are later dorazvitie and they turn into adults (see also Ascariasis).
Ascetic (Avoidant) - used to describe the types of people, differing shyness, sensitivity to criticism from others, fear of being ostracized, they try to avoid the usual, normal communication, because they are afraid to suffer in it fail, are in constant tension, all of them time have a concern that eventually severely restricts their lives.
Asparagine (Asparagine) - See Amino acids.
Asparaginase (Asparaginase) - an enzyme that inhibits the growth of some tumors, is used exclusively for the treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Can lead to allergic reactions and anaphylaxis. Trade name: ervinaza (Erwinasc).
Aspergillosis (Aspergillosis) - a disease caused by fungi of genus Aspergillus, usually leechnoy mold (Aspergillus fumigatus). Almost always seen in patients suffering from various pulmonary diseases, and has three forms. Allergic form most often seen in asthmatics and can lead to adhesions of the lung. Colonization form leads to the formation of tangles of mold (Aspergillus (aspergilloma)); they occur within the already-existing cavities in the lungs (such as inside a bubble or emphysematous cured tuberculous cavities). Similar accumulations of mold may also arise in other parts of the human body, for example, in the eyes or the paranasal sinuses. With the third form of aspergillus fungus infects lay-Kie completely and may even spread throughout the body. This form is extremely rare and is considered incurable. Usually it is associated with reduced immunity in patients.
Aspermia (Aspennia) - lack of or inadequate education of seminal fluid. But more often the term used to describe a complete absence of sperm (see Azospermiya).
Aspiration (Aspiration) - removal of fluid from the body with suction cross with a special tool - aspirator (aspirator). There are several types of aspirators: some used the hollow needle to suction fluid from the cyst, inflamed joint cavities, etc., while others are used for suction of foreign objects and water from the mouth of the patient in the course of dental treatment.
Microsurgical epididymal sperm aspiration (Microsurgical Epididymal Sperm Aspiration, Mesa) - the taking of sperm from the epididymis using a needle aspiration. This procedure is performed using anesthesia and is usually carried out for artificial insemination in the case when, due to any reason for the disruption of normal breeding male sperm from the testes (for example, as a result of blockage (due to infection), ejaculatory ducts or after a vasectomy). Semen is subjected to special treatment, during which selected it contains the most motile sperm, after chemical treatment, which is due to their activation, they are used for artificial insemination outside the mother's body.
Concepts Association (Association Of Ideas) - (in psychology) the relationship of different concepts in accordance with their values ​​to create the correct image. When free association (free association), such communication of concepts is carried out in dreams or fantasies of a person and can be used to identify the hidden motives of his conduct. When conducting tests to identify the word association (word association tests) patient needs as quickly as possible to respond to verbal stimuli which he hears.
Free Association (Free Association) - (psychoanalysis) method, which encourages the patient to adhere to a specific sequence of thoughts, which they understood them. See also the Association of the concept.

Astasia (Astasia) - inability of a man standing, not related to any physical cause. Astasia-abasia (astasiaabasia) - is the inability of people to stand or walk for his lack of any common disease. Attempts to look up a patient from a very strange, with a thorough medical examination of such patients can identify a number of internal contradictions. Most often astasia constitutes an express conversion disorders.
Astemizole (Astemizole) - an antihistamine drug used to treat hay fever and allergic skin reactions. Appointed inside. Possible side effects include: weight gain, and if you take the medication in very large doses of cardiac arrhythmias. Trade name: gismanal (Hismanal).
Asthenic (Asthenic) - used to describe a human condition characterized by reduced amounts of stored energy in the body, as well as increased sensitivity to physical strain and emotional stress.
Asthenia (Asthenia) - weakness or impotence.
Asthenia (Hyposthenia) - the state of physical weakness or abnormally low muscle tone.
Asthenopia (Asthenopia) - see Voltage eye.
Astenospermiya (Asthenospermia) - oligospermia.
Aster (Aster) - star-shaped arrangement of microtubules around the centrosome in the cell during mitosis and meiosis, the star is connected with the formation of the spindle-shaped structures - the mitotic spindle.
Astereognosis (Astereognosis) - see agnosia. Astigmatism (astigmatism) - blurred vision, at which the distortion of the image of an object (usually a vertical or horizontal axis) due to the fact that the light rays do not focus directly on the retina. Certain parts of the image can be focused on the retina, but the rays of light emanating from the other sites focus either behind or in front of the retina. Most often it is associated with an abnormal curvature of the cornea and / or lens of the eye (see refraction), whose surface is reminiscent of the eggs (and not a sphere). This impairment persists wearing cylindrical lenses (cylindrical lenses), which create the opposite effect and so clean distortion that occurs in this case. - Astigmatic (astigmatic).
Asthma (Asthma) - a condition characterized by episodes of abrupt narrowing of the bronchial tract (may develop either spontaneously or because of some external influence), accompanied by a cough and shortness of breath (exhale). Bronchial asthma (bronchial asthma) may be triggered action of one or more factors, such as allergens, drugs (eg, aspirin or other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and beta-blockers), physical exertion, emotional excitement, infectious diseases or pollution air. Asthma usually develops at a young age, and in allergic people (see Atopy) and may be accompanied by other manifestations of hypersensitivity, such as hay fever and dermatitis, but in some cases, bronchial asthma also occur in adulthood and even into old age. Treatment of asthma involves the application of bronchodilators, with the simultaneous use of corticosteroids with or without them, drugs are usually prescribed as an aerosol or dry powder sprayed by the inhaler, but very powerful forms of asthma patients can use a spray. Use of oral corticosteroids showed those patients who are ill to help all of the above drugs. With strong attacks of asthma may be necessary to use large doses of oral corticosteroids (see Asthmatic status). Avoidance of known allergens, especially house dust and animal hair, and food additives that may trigger the development of an allergic reaction, as well as giving up smoking - all of which help reduce the incidence of asthma attacks. - Asthmatic (asthmatik).
Asthma Heart (Cardiac Asthma) - develops in left ventricular heart failure should be distinguished from asthma, since treatment in these two cases is entirely different.
Astrocyte (Astrocyle), astroglial cell (Astroglial Cell) - kind of glial cells with numerous radiating from the cell body spikes, which are expanded at the ends, moving to wide feet that surround capillaries, are found in all parts of the central nervous system. It is believed that these cells supply nutrients to neurons, and possibly participate in the processes of information storage.
Astrocytoma (Astrocytoma) - a brain tumor that develops from astrocytes and glial cells - cells that are present in nervous tissue, besides neurons, which, unlike neurons, retain the ability to mitosis. In humans, there are all stages of development of malignant tumors from slow-growing tumor cells which in its histological structure similar to normal glial cells to the rapidly growing and has a high degree of destruction of the tumor, the cellular structure of which is poorly definable (see Glioblastoma). In adults, astrocytomas are usually found in the hemispheres of the brain, whereas in children they can grow well in the cerebellum.
Suffocation (Asphyxia) - suffocation; life-threatening condition in which oxygen is not absorbed into the lungs as a result of any obstacles to its passage through the airways or damage to any part of respiratory system. Drowning, suffocation, poisoning, toxic gaseous substances - all of which can cause the development of asphyxia. If you as quickly as possible not to remove existing obstacles to the passage of air (if it exists), then the progressive cyanosis leading to death of the patient, often during asphyxia there is a need to conduct a patient artificial respiration, because brain cells can not live without oxygen for more than four minutes.
Ascites (Ascites), Gidroperitoneum (Hydroperitoneum) - accumulation of fluid in the abdominal cavity, causing an increase in the abdomen. May develop as a result of any infectious diseases (eg tuberculosis), heart failure, portal hypertension, liver cirrhosis, as well as various forms of cancer (especially liver cancer and ovarian cancer). See also Edema.
Atavism (Atavism) - a phenomenon in which a person is observed any symptom or disease that occurred at his remote ancestors, and absent parents.
Ataxia (Ataxia) - tremors and staggering uncertain gait, difficulty walking, especially in the dark, resulting from a violation of coordination of movements brain structures. May develop due to an illness or injury of the cerebellum. When cerebellar ataxia (cerebellar ataxia) movements are particularly awkward. The man staggers when walking, can not correctly pronounce the word, often develops nystagmus. Cerebellar syndrome (cerebellar syndrome) (or Nona syndrome (Nonne's syndrome)) is a form of congenital cerebellar ataxia. Friedrich ataxia (Fricdreich's ataxia) - a hereditary disease first manifests itself in a person's youth. Its symptoms resemble the symptoms observed with cerebellar ataxia, along with pronounced spasticity of the limbs. Unsteady movement, arising from the sensory ataxia (sensory ataxia) manifested most clearly when the patient closes his eyes (see Romberg's symptom). See also tabes (or motor ataxia). - Ataxic (ataxic).
Motor ataxia (Locomotor Ataxia) - see tabes.
Ataraxia (Ataraxia) - the state of complacency and liberation from anxiety, especially after taking some tranquilizers.
Atgikotomiya (Atticotomy) - a surgical procedure is to remove the cholesteatoma from the ear. Is a type of limited mastoidektomii.
Athel-(Atel-), Athel-(Atelo-) - a prefix indicating a lack of or incomplete development. For example: atelentsefaliya (atelencephaly) - underdevelopment of the brain; atelokardiya (atelocardia) - congenital heart disease.

Atelectasis (Atelectasis) - the inability of light to crack down. Occurs when the underdevelopment of the cells lining the alveoli (which is often observed in preterm infants), and their inability to produce surfactant, which maintains the surface tension in the alveoli. Develops when plugged sputum or bronchial foreign bodies, bronchial cancer, or as a result of enlarged lymph nodes (eg, tuberculosis or lung cancer). The patient's condition usually improves after physical therapy and removal of bronchial obstacles (if one exists) using a bronchoscope, but with prolonged atelectasis in humans leads to irreversible processes, and death can occur.
Ateliosis, infantilism Pituitary (Ateleiosis) - incomplete sexual development due to insufficient production of pituitary hormones. See infantilism, dwarfism.
Athetosis (Athetosis) - a painful involuntary movements, particularly of the hands, face and tongue. Are one form of cerebral palsy. The child is almost unable to speak or use hands, but the mind often does not change. These movements can occur as a result of receiving different medications used to treat Parkinson's disease, as well as rejection of phenothiazines (see also Dyskinesia). - Athetosic (athetotic).
Atireoz (Athyreosis) - the lack of functioning or inadequate functioning of the thyroid gland, causing the development of cretinism in infants and adults - miksedemu.
Atlanta (Alias) - The first cervical vertebra through which the skull is connected to the backbone.
Atonia (Atony) - a condition in which muscles are limp and passive, not their normal elasticity. - Atopic (atonic).
Atopy (Atopen) - any substance that leads to the development of atopy.
Atopy (Atopy) - a kind of allergy, in which a person has an inherent or constitutional predisposition to develop allergic reactions (eg, hay fever, allergic asthma, atopic eczema) in contact with the allergen. - Atopic (atopic).
Atresia (Atresia) - 1. Congenital absence or abnormal narrowing of an opening or channel in the human body. Biliary atresia (biliary atresia) affects the bile ducts and causes of infant development of obstructive jaundice, and if time does not make the child an operation, then the disease can be fatal. When the tricuspid valve atresia (tricuspid atresia) is a violation of intracardiac blood flow (disturbed flow of blood from the right atrium to right ventricle). 2. Degenerative changes occurring in the majority of ovarian follicles. Typically, during each menstrual cycle, ovulation occurs only one graafova bubble (follicle). - Atreticheskyay (atretic).
Atri-(Atri-), atrio-(Atrio-) - a prefix indicating relationship to the cavity, sinuses, especially the atrium. For example: atrioventricular (atrioventricular) relating to the atria and ventricles of the heart.
Atromid-S (Atromid-S) - see clofibrate.
Atropine (Atropine) - medicinal substances derived from plants, called carotid grass (see Belladonna) blocks M-holinoreaktivnye system, therefore depresses the activity of parasympathetic nerves (see Parasimpatoliticheskoe agent). Atropine relaxes smooth muscles, is used in the treatment of biliary and intestinal colic. In addition, it speeds up heart rate, decreases the secretion of bronchial, salivary, stomach, intestine, sweat glands and pancreas and is often used prior to general anesthesia, as well as in the treatment of peptic ulcers (gastric and duodenal ulcers). In ophthalmology it is used for pupil dilation. Atropine by mouth, by injection or as eye drops, typical side effects: dry mouth, thirst and blurred vision. Trade name: Minims atropine.
Atrophy (Atrophy) - termination of the normal development of the organ or tissue due to degenerative changes in their cages. May develop due to malnutrition, illness, or due to age. Atrophic changes in the ovaries in women during menopause, atrophy of the corpus luteum occurs naturally during the menstrual cycle. Muscular atrophy (muscular atrophy) is observed in humans with various diseases, such as polio.
Atrophy of the optic nerve (Optic Atrophy) - degeneration of the optic nerve. It can develop as a result of any eye diseases or damage to the optic nerve due to injury or inflammation. Visually, optic atrophy is manifested in the form of its bleaching, which is detected during the survey the inner surface of the eye through the ophthalmoscope.
Zudeka atrophy (Sudek'S Atrophy) - rapidly progressive osteoporosis, bones of the hand or foot, sometimes growing as a result of trauma, infection or the presence of any malignancy.
Muscular Atrophy Spinal Cord (Spinal Muscular Atrophy (Sma)) - a hereditary disease in which the death of motor neurons in the spinal cord and there is progressive atrophy of the muscles of the upper and lower extremities. Was recently identified gene responsible for the development of the disease: in patients with children, this gene is inherited as a double recessive. Most often the disease begins to develop between the ages of 2 to 12 years. In the end, affects the respiratory muscles and death occurs as a result of respiratory tract infections. Most sick people to 20 years have become totally disabled, and only a few of them survive to 30 years. Spinal muscular atrophy in young children (infantile spinal muscular atrophy) is an acute form of the disease (see Disease Verdniga Hoffmann).
Attenuation (Attenuation) - reducing the ability of pathogenic (virulence) of bacteria and viruses by means of chemical reactions, heating, drying, growing under adverse conditions or conduct by any other organism. Weakened (virulent) bacteria and viruses are often used in the process of immunization.
ATP (Atf), adenosine triphosphate (Adenosine Triphosphate) - present in the cells of the compound, which is composed of adenine, ribose and three phosphate groups. In the chemical bonds of phosphate groups concluded the energy needed for cells to perform various types of work, for example, muscle contraction, this energy is released when ATP splits into ADP and AMP. ATP formed from ADP and AMP using the energy released during the splitting of the carbohydrates or other nutrients. See also Mitochondria.
Augmentation, bladder (Bladder Augmentation), increase bladder (Bladder Enhancement) - a surgical technique to increase capacity of the bladder. Usually achieved by using ileotsekotsistoplastiki (see Tsistoplastika).
Audi-(Audi-), Audio-(Audio-) - a prefix indicating relationship to the human ear or surrounding sounds.
Audigramma - graphical results are recorded on the audiometer hearing test.
Audiology (Audiology) - a branch of medicine dealing with the study of diseases of the ear.
Audiometer (Audiometer) - a device for determining the threshold of hearing at different sound frequencies, used for the diagnosis of human deafness. - Audiometry (audiometry).
Aux-(Aux-), aux (Aiho-) - a prefix, indicates an increase, growth. For example: auksokardiya (auxocardia) - dilation of the heart.
Auxotroph (Auxotroph) - the form of micro-organisms arising from mutations that require one or more specific factors for their growth, which did not require the original microorganism.
Aura (Aura) - aura or migraine attack. Epileptic aura (epileptic aura) may be manifested in various forms. Migraine aura (migrainous aura) may appear blurred vision or the appearance of bright twinkling lights before his eyes, as well as numbness or weakness in the limbs.
Auranofin (Auranofin) - a drug which includes gold. Assigned into the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. Possible side effects: nausea, abdominal pain, diarrhea, ulceration of the mouth. Trade name: ridaura (Ridaura).

Aureomitsin (Aureomucin) - see Chlortetracycline.
Field Monitoring (Auscultation) - a diagnostic hearing sounds produced by the movement of gas or liquid inside the body (usually done with a stethoscope). Auscultation is a valuable technique of diagnostics of various diseases of the heart, lungs, intestines, and some other organs, as in most cases, the resulting disease leads to characteristic changes in the sounds, listening to these organs. - Auscultatory (auscultatory).
Out-(Out-), Auto-(Auto-) - a prefix, indicating that the action is spontaneous. For example: autokinez (autokinesis) - spontaneous movements.
Autism (Autism) - 1. Cannery syndrome, autism CHILDREN (Kanner's syndrome, infantile autism) - a rare mental disorders in children, manifested first at the age of about two and a half years. The child is hindered communication with other people, poorly developed speech, he was a poor command of abstract concepts, and his behavior is limited and largely repetitive (see stereotypes), it feels painful resistance to any change in the ambient atmosphere. Such children can be very difficult to understand other people's feelings, so even grow up, they are for life and remain isolated from society. Many a decline of intelligence, but among them there are also quite normal children, which may even in some talent show (see Idiot "scientist"). It is believed that the main causes of the disease are hereditary factors and brain damage. There is no specific treatment, but these children usually requires a long training to become productive members of society. Behavioral disorders and anxiety they are eliminated by using behavioral therapy and certain drugs (eg phenothiazines). 2. Escape from reality in a world of their own fantasies: The nature of schizophrenia or a process of personal change. - Autistic (autistic).
Autoagglyutinatsiya (Autoagglutination) - adhesion of human erythrocytes his own serum, due to the presence in it of specific autoantibodies, often observed in acquired hemolytic anemia (autoimmune disease).
Autoantibody (Autoantibody) - an antibody in the human body against its own structures in autoimmune disease.

Autovaccine (Autovaccine), Vaccine Autoimmune (Autogenous Vaccine) - vaccine prepared by separating the bacteria from sick individuals, their cultivation and further destruction. Previously it was thought that with the introduction of the vaccine back to the patient had increased resistance to infection. Despite the fact that before these vaccines were extremely popular, especially for the treatment of boils, there is no evidence that dead bacteria better enhance immunity than live and dead bacteria, which are already present in the patient's rights.
Self-inoculation (Autovaccination) - application autovaccine during vaccination.
Autoinokulyatsiya (Autoinoculation) - transfer of inoculated material from one part of the human organism to another. For example, after vaccination against smallpox around the site of inoculation may develop concomitant lesions. Sometimes the affected conjunctiva.
Self-poisoning (Autointoxication) - poisoning toxins, is produced directly in the body cheloveka.AUTOKRINNY (autocrine) is used to describe the process of developing a cell of certain substances such as hormones or growth factors that can directly affect the growth of the cells in which they were developed.
Autolysis (Autolysis) - the destruction of tissues or cells under the influence of their own enzymes. See lysosomes.
Autologous (Autologous) - used to refer to transplantation, in which the tissue for transplant is taken near the recipient.
Autoploidiya (Autoploidy) - the normal state of the cells of a living organism, in which each cell has a set of chromosomes containing homologous pair, allow normal cells to divide. - AUTOPLOIDNY (autoploid).
Autopsy (Autopsy), necropsy (Necropsy, Post Mortem) - autopsy and post-mortem examination to establish the cause of death or illness resulting in death.
Autoradiography (Autoradiography), Radioautografiya (Radioautography) - method to determine the distribution of radioactive indicator in the tissues of experimental animals. The indicator is introduced into the body of an animal, which then over time are sacrificed. Thin slices of it covered by a special emulsion that is sensitive to radiation, is subjected to photographic processing, and examined under a microscope. Darkening of the film at some sites indicates a high concentration of radioactive substances at these sites.
Autorefraktor (Autorefractor) - a device to automatically determine the required correction for lens glasses. See also Optometry.
Autoscope (Autoscopy) - representation of the human body as though at some distance from him. Can be a symptom of epilepsy. See also Submission of the body outside the shell.
Autosome (Autosome) - each chromosome pair is not related to sex chromosomes in diploid cells. - Autosomal (autosomal).
Autosuggestion (Autosuggestion) - self-hypnosis or samoubezhdenie parties to change the psychological or physiological state of a person with recurring concepts. Autosuggestion is used mainly by autogenic training (autogenic training); this technique helps sick people overcome anxiety and to cope with bad habits. See the suggestion.
Autograft (Autograft) - tissue transplants to take from one part of the body and transplanted to another part of the body at one and the same person. For the treatment of deep burns to the affected area is often transplanted graft is a strip of skin taken from any other areas of the patient, usually with the upper arm or thigh. Unlike gomotransplantatov when autograft transplantation does not occur as a result of its rejection of a protective immune response. See also graft skin transplantation.
Autotransfusion (Autotransfusion) - a transfusion patient blood taken from him during the same surgery. Blood is collected by suction during the operation, filtered to remove the existing therein small bubbles and blood clots, and then using a needle introduced into the vein returned to the patient's bloodstream.
Aphasia (Aphasia), dysphasia (Dysphasia) - speech disorder in which a person or absolutely can not speak, or has violated the content of speech and its understanding (although this is not due to a violation of articulation: see dyslalia). Aphasia is associated with a disease of the left half of the brain (dominant hemisphere) in right-handers. Often accompanied by difficulties in reading and writing. - Aphasic (aphasic).
Aphakia (Aphakia) - no lens, seen in patients after surgical removal of a cataract lens.
Afebrilny (Afebrile) - show no signs of fever, afebrile.
Afibrinogenemia (Afibrinogenaemia) - responsible for the lack of blood coagulation factor - fibrinogen in the blood plasma. For comparison: hypofibrinogenaemia.
Aflatoxin (Aflatoxin) - poisonous substances secreted by fungal spores (Aspergillus flaws), which infects peanuts. In some animals the poison can cause cancer, in addition, it is thought that people living in regions with warm and humid climate, it can lead to liver cancer, as residents of these areas are stored nuts and cereals are often amazed at this mold.
Aphonia (Aphonia) - the lack or loss of voice due to disease of larynx, oral cavity, or related to the disease of muscles and nerves involved in the formation and articulation of speech. If loss of speech associated with cerebral lesions, in which case the disease is called aphasia.
Afreniya (Aphrenia) - mental retardation. See Oligophrenia.
Aphrodisiac (Aphrodisiac) - a substance that stimulates sexual desire.
AFTA (Aphtha, Multiplier. Aphthae) - a small ulceration (singular or plural) the mouth in the form of white or red spots. The reason for their appearance is unknown, are eliminated with the help of palliative care. - Aphthous (aphthous).
Affect (Affect) - (psychiatry): 1. Emotional manifestation of mental tone and mood in humans. 2. Emotional state, accompanied by specific ideas. - Affective (affective).
Afferent (Afferent) - 1. Certain nerves or neurons that transmit impulses from receptors to the brain or spinal cord, ie, any sensitive (afferent) nerve or neuron. 2. Blood vessels that feed a network of capillaries in a particular organ or region of the human body. 3. Afferent lymphatic vessels that are appropriate to the lymph node. For comparison: the efferent.
Achalasia (Achalasia), Kardiospazm (Cardiospasm) - violation of normal cross-cardial esophagus (especially the sphincter deficiency) associated with hypoplasia of the neuromuscular apparatus of the lower esophageal sphincter, resulting in slowing the passage of food through the esophagus. The disease can develop in people of all ages. Its main symptoms are difficulty swallowing liquid or solid food, gradually increasing over time, in some cases may be a belching is not sufficiently digested food, sometimes due to muscle spasms of the esophagus develops severe chest pain. Diagnosis is based on X-ray examination with barium, and in some cases and based on the gauge survey (see gauges "). Treatment is carried out by the strong pull of dense bottom end of the esophagus or with surgical dissection of the muscle ring in this area (kardiomiotomiya, or operation of Heller).
Ahil (Achylia) - the lack of secretion. This term is usually used in relation to the stomach, not performing up to the gastric juice - gastric Ahil (achylia gastrica), due to its mucosal atrophy (see achlorhydria).
Achlorhydria (Achlorhydria) - the absence or low content of hydrochloric acid in gastric juice. Resistant achlorhydria, continued despite taking large doses of histamine is accompanied by atrophy of the gastric mucosa. In this case, usually there is a lack of secretion of a special internal antianemic factor in the stomach, leading eventually to the development of pernicious (malignant) anemia. However, some people achlorhydria is not accompanied by the development of any other diseases or the deteriorating state of health and therefore does not require any treatment.
Achlorhydria (Anacidity) - complete or partial absence of the acid in body fluids, in particular, in gastric juice.
Ahola (Acholia) - the absence of bile in the digestive tract (eg, due to obstruction of the bile ducts) or its lack of development.
Aholuriya (Acholurid) - the absence of bile pigments in the urine in certain forms of jaundice (aholurichsskaya jaundice). -Aholurichesky (acholuric).
Achondroplasia (Achondroplasia) - the disease is inherited as a dominant characteristic, which is no growth of limb to its normal size due to lesions of both the bone and cartilage. As a result, typical features of this type of dwarfism are short limbs, but normal torso and head, the intellect in this disease remains. - Ahondroplastichesky (achondroplastic).
Achromatic (Achromatic) - colorless.

Achromatopsia (Achromatopsia) - severe congenital color vision deficiency. Achromatopsia occurs in humans is extremely rare and is usually combined with the deterioration of visual acuity is determined by hereditary factors.
Atsebutolol (Acebutolot) - a drug, a beta-blocker commonly used to treat hypertension, angina and cardiac arrhythmias. Ingest. Possible side effects: difficulty breathing (especially in patients with asthma), and cold extremities. Trade name: sektral (Sectral).
Atsentriya (Acentric) - (in genetics), chromosome or chromosome fragment without a centromere. Since such a chromosome can not be attached to the spindle, it is usually lost during cell division. These chromosomes are often found in cells exposed to radiation. - Atsengricheskmy (acentric). Acetazolamide (acetazolamide) - a diuretic drug used in the treatment of glaucoma to reduce intraocular pressure, and to prevent altitude sickness. Possible side effects: headaches, numbness and tingling of the extremities. Trade name: diamoks, diakarb (Diamox).
Acetaminophen (Acetaminophen) - see Paracetamol.
Acetylcholine (Acetylcholine) - ethyl ester of choline: a neurotransmitter released at the end of all preganglionic autonomic fibers and the majority of postganglionic parasympathetic neurons of the parasympathetic nervous system and neuromuscular connections. After transmission of nerve impulses, acetylcholine is rapidly degraded by atsetol and choline under the influence of the enzyme cholinesterase. Atropine and curare causes paralysis by blocking the action of acetylcholine in muscle membranes, physostigmine, as well as some other anticholinesterase drugs prolong the action of acetylcholine by blocking the effect of cholinesterase.
Acetylcysteine ​​(Acetylcysteine) - a drug used to reduce the thick mucous secretions in the patient. Administered as an aerosol mainly to treat respiratory diseases such as bronchitis and cystic fibrosis (CF), in addition, is used to prevent liver damage during persdozirovke paracetamol. Possible side effects: a spasm of bronchial muscles, nausea, vomiting, or feeling the heat. Trade names: fabrol (Fabrol), parvoleks (Parvolex).
Atsetogeksamid (Acetohexamide) - hypoglycemic drugs containing sulfonyl; used to treat insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Ingested orally, possible side effects: headache, dizziness, irritability.
Acetone (Acetone) - an organic compound is an intermediate product of many fermentation processes involving bacteria and is produced by oxidation of fatty acids. Under certain abnormal conditions (eg fasting), acetone, together with other ketones can accumulate in the blood (see Ketosis). Acetone is a volatile liquid, which mixes well with both fat and water, being so excellent solvent. Used in chromatography, as well as during preparation of tissues for the extraction of enzymes.
Acetonuria (Acetonuria) - see ketonuria.
Atsefalyus (Acephalus) - a fruit that has no head.
Acidemia (Acidaemia) - abnormally high acidity of the blood. The disease develops as a result of increasing blood concentrations of acids, which normally are not detected or present in trace amounts and / or by decreasing the content of her bases. See also acidosis. For comparison: Alkalemiya.
Acidosis (Acidosis) - a condition characterized by a high content of acids in the fluids and tissues. Develops due to dysfunction of the mechanisms responsible for maintaining acid-base balance of blood (see Acid-base balance). When the gas acidosis (gaseous acidosis) in the body accumulates excessive amounts of carbon dioxide, such as in the case of drowning. In renal acidosis (renal acidosis), developing as a result of renal failure and characterized by an inability to acid excretion in the urine, the organism is observed very low levels of plasma bicarbonates, and the high concentration of phosphoric and sulfuric acids. Diabetics often suffer from a characteristic of this disease, acidosis, in which sodium, potassium and ketone bodies are lost in the urine.
Atsidofil (Acidopbihil), acidophilic (Acidophilic) - 1. In histology - is used to describe the tissues, cells or their parts, stained by acid dyes (such, for example, eosin). 2. In bacteriology - used to describe the bacteria that breed well in acidic medium.
Acyclovir (Acyclovir) - an antibacterial drug that inhibits DNA synthesis in cells infected with herpes virus. Assigned locally, in the form of tablets for oral or intravenous; well helps patients with an impaired immune system, as well as for the treatment of herpes zoster, genital herpes and herpes encephalitis. Trade name: Zovirax (Zovirax). Acinus (acinus, set. Acinni) - 1. A small bag or a cavity surrounded by secretory cells of glands. Several experts believe the term is synonymous with the alveoli, others distinguish acinus by the presence of a narrow, walking out of the bag duct. 2. In the lung - a functional unit of the lung - the branching system of one terminal bronchioles. Emphysema is usually classified part of the acinus involved in the pathological process (eg, tsentriatsinoznaya, panatsinarnaya or periatsinarnaya). - Atsinusny (acinous).
Aer-(Aer-), Aero-(Aero-) - a prefix indicating the presence of air or gas. For example: aerogastriya (aerogastria) - presence of gas in the stomach; aerogenez (aerogenesis) - allocation of gas
Aerobe (Aerobe) - any organism, particularly a microbe, which for normal growth and development requires the presence of free oxygen. See also anaerobic, microaerophilic.
Aerobics (Aerobic Exercises) - See Exercise.
Aerobic (Aerobic) - 1. Relating to aerobes: require the presence of free oxygen for normal growth and development. 2. Used to describe cellular respiration, in which carbohydrates are completely oxidized in the atmosphere with oxygen to release the maximum amount of chemical energy.
Aerodontalgia (Aerodontalgia) - toothache caused by a change in atmospheric pressure during a flight in an airplane or while climbing a mountain.
Aerosol (Aerosol) - suspension, liquid or very small solid particles (diameter of about 0,001 mm) and sprayed in the air. Medications in the form of aerosols may be administered to the patient for inhalation.
Air pilots disease (Aeroneurosis) - syndrome of increased anxiety, agitation and insomnia, developing the pilots, flying on airplanes, not adapted for flight at high altitudes, as a consequence of hypoxia.
Aerophagy (Aerophagy) - swallowing excess air. This can occur spontaneously during a belch, accidentally during a quick meal or drink, as well as unconsciously out of habit. Spontaneous aerophagy used for the development of esophageal voice after surgical removal of the larynx (usually, this operation is performed in laryngeal cancer).

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